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PSYC18H3 (275)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 2 Evolution of Emotions Darwin believed we were similar to lower animals in terms of emotional expressions o He argued that human emotional expressions have some primitive aspects (i.e. hair raising in fear, show teeth when angry) evidence that we once existed in a lower and animal-like condition Elements of an evolutionary approach to emotion The engine that drives evolution has 3 parts: o Superbundance animals and plants produce more offspring than necessary merely to reproduce themselves o Variation each offspring is somewhat different than others, and differences are passed on by heredity o Natural selection characteristics that allow the individual to be adapted to the environment are selected for, disadvantageous characteristics are selected against Selection pressures At the core of natural selection are selection pressures, some involve threats or opportunities directly related to physical survival (i.e. food, warmth, avoid predation & illness) Hereditary elements = 2 kinds of sexual selection pressures determine who reproduces: o Intrasexual competition occurs within a sex for access to mates (usually pronounced in males i.e. stags lock horns and fight), who over prevails = more likely to pass on desired traits to succeeding generations o Intersexual competition refers to the process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex (i.e. seen in the preference women report for males of higher status, therefore more resources for offspring) Recently, theorists have proposed that our capacity to cooperate is a powerful determinant of who reproduces and who survives (i.e. raise offspring in relationships with other people, therefore more likely to succeed) Adaptation Adaptation are genetically based traits that allow organism to respond well to specific selection pressures and to survive and reproduce (i.e. avoid poisons = we avoid bitterness etc) o Dietary likes and dislikes = bitter, poison = sweet, nutritional o Finding a healthy and fertile mate It is disadvantageous to devote resources to the pursuit of mates who have little chance of reproduction or might bear unhealthy offspring solution = humans have evolved preferences for potential mates who show signs of fertility and reproduction readiness i.e. people find symmetrical faces more attractive (i.e. exposure to parasites in early development = asymmetrical faces therefore this guides us to find mates that have been raised in healthy environments o an important determinants of whether ones genes are passed n is survival of offspring in infancy we love and respond to baby-like features (large forehead, big eyes, small chin), their smiles, coos and laughs etc ensures that parents help offspring reach the age of viability Not all human traits or behaviours are adaptations (i.e. snoring, nervous leg jiggles serve no evolutionary function) Evolution often endows old anatomical and behavioural features with new functions (i.e. animals have reflec in which they flatten their ears when startled = original function was to protect the ears, also make them look friendlyapproachable www.notesolution.com
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