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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 4: Communications of Emotions People express emotions with facial actions, with their voice, with touch, with posture, with their gait Five kinds of nonverbal behaviour Often single words like smile fail adequately to describe the language of nonverbal communication Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen organized language of nonverbal behaviour into 5 categories 1. Emblems: nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words Examples: peace sign, rubbing of one forefinger with other to say shame on you Emblems vary in their meaning across cultures (examples on page 86) 2. Illustrator: a nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech, often makes it vivid and visual We make hand gestures most of the time when we speak McNeill shown that these gestures slightly precede the corresponding words we say 3. Regulators: nonverbal behaviours that we use to coordinate conversation People look and point at and orient their bodies toward people whom they want to start speaking. They look and turn their bodies away from those they wish would stop speaking 4. Self-adaptor: nervous behaviours people engage in with no seeming intention, as if simply to release nervous energy People touch their necks, tug at their hair, jiggle their legs and stroke their chins The markers of emotional expressions Expressions of emotion tend to be fairly brief, typically lasting between 1 and 10 seconds Facial expressions of emotion involve involuntary muscle actions that people cannot produce when they feel like it, and cannot suppress, even when instructed to do so o Example: facial expression of anger involves action of the muscle that tightens around the mouth, which most people cannot produce voluntarily o Affective displays, as opposed to mock or feigned expressions are reliable indicators of individuals feeling Emotional expressions should have their parallels, or homologues, in the displays of other species o If emotions derive from our evolutionary heritage, then certain elements of human affective displays should be seen in other species Studies of the universality of facial expressions Darwin proposed 3 principles to explain why emotional expressions have the appearance that they do 1. Principle of serviceable habits: expressive behaviours that have led to rewards will re-occur in the future Example, furrowed brow, which protects the eyes from blows and exposed teeth, which signal imminent attack, are beneficial in aggressive encounters, therefore they occur when youre angry 2. Principle of antithesis: opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions Example, strength and confidence expressed by expanding chest and shoulders whereas weakness and uncertainty are expressed by opposite, a shoulder shrug This principle is probably at play in properties of expressions of embarrassment and pride 3. Principle of nervous discharge: excess, undirected energy is released in random expressions, such as face touches, leg jiggles Darwin advanced his claim that facial expressions of emotion, as part of our evolutionary heritage, are human universals- several evidence A. Encoding hypothesis: if emotions are universal, the experience of different emotions should be associated with the same distinct facial expressions in every society, worldwide B. Decoding hypothesis: if there are universal emotions, people of different cultures should interpret these expressions in same way www.notesolution.com
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