Textbook Notes (368,820)
Canada (162,188)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYC18H3 (275)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 text book notes

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Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 4 - communication of emotions Givens and Perper - studied patterns of nonverbal behaviours shown by women and men in singles bars; attention-getting phase - men show off potential signs of their social status, women look askance; recognition phase - gaze intently, raise eyebrows, accidental bumps; keeping-time phase - mirror glances, laughter, posture to assess interest Ekman and Friesen - organized language of nonverbal behaviour into five categories emblems - directly translate to words; ex. peace sign, raised clenched fist for black power illustrator - accompanies our speech, makes it vivid and visual; Clintons signature illustrator regulators - use to coordinate conversation; orientation of bodies toward people they want to start speaking to self-adaptor - nervous behaviours people engage in with no seeming intention, simply to release nervous energy nonverbal expressions or displays of emotion - signals in the face, voice, body, and touch that convey emotion Facial expressions of emotion markers of emotional expressions - fairly brief (1-10 seconds); involuntary muscle actions; have parallels, or homologues Darwin - three principles to explain why emotional expressions have the appearance o principle of serviceable habits - expressive behaviours that have led to rewards will re-occur in the future o principle of antithesis - opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions o principle of nervous discharge - excess, undirected energy is released in random expressions Tomkins, Ekman, and Izard - distilled Darwins observations into two hypotheses to test if emotions are universal o encoding hypothesis - experience of different emotions should be associated with the same distinct facial expressions in every society, worldwide o decoding hypothesis - people of different cultures should interpret these expressions in the same ways Ekman and Friesen - took 3000 photos of different people as they expressed six emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise) www.notesolution.com
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