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PSYC18 TEXTBOOK NOTES.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC18 TEXTBOOK NOTESCHAPTER 1Many say that our emotions are base and destructive and that the more noble reaches of human nature are achieved when our passions are controlled by our reasonThe epicureans and stoics thought that emotions are irrational and damagingDuring Darwins time it was believed that God had given humans special facial muscles that allowed them to express uniquely human sentiments unknown to animalsDarwin was the first to use questionnaires he would send out printed questions to missionaries who could observe people in other cultures asking them to observe particular expressionsDarwin concluded that emotional expressions derive largely from habits that in our evolutionary or individual past has once been usefulMovements of expressions in the face and body are the first means of communication between the mother and her infant Jameslange emotion is the perception of changes of our body as we react to that fact About the nature of emotional experienceJames suggested that our experience of many emotions is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous system part of the nervous system supplies to inner organs like the heart blood vessels stomach and sweat glands James proposed that emotions give colour and warmth to experience without it everything would be paleFreud suggest that certain events usually of a sexual kind can be so damaging that they leave psychological scars that can affect the rest of our livesAristotle said emotions are connected with action they depend on what we believe they are evaluations so we are responsible for our emotions because we are responsible for our beliefs and evaluations of the worldAristotle had 3 principles of how we persuade others a hearer is more likely to believe a good person than a bad one people are persuaded when what is said stirs their emotions and people are persuaded by arguments that seem truthfulIn order to persuade one must know something about the people to whom you speak about their values and about the effects that speaking may have on themOur emotional experience are shaped by our judgment and evaluations We experience katharsis of our emotions meaning purgation or purification as if one goes to the theater to rid oneself from toxic emotions or to elevate them It meant clarification the clearing away of obstacles to understanding our emotionsDescartes claimed 6 fundamental emotions wonder desire joy love hatred and sadness occurring in the thinking aspect of ourselves that he called the soul Descartes differentiated emotions from other perceptions about events that happen in the outside world and perceptions that arise from events within the body such as hunger and painPerceptions tell us about what is important in the outside world and bodily passions like hunger and pain tell us about important events in the body emotions tell us what is important in our souls Emotions cannot be entirely controlled by thinking but they can be regulated by thought especially thoughts that are trueDescartes suggested that the emotions depend on how we evaluate events and said that they serve important functionOur emotions are usually functional but can sometimes be dysfunctional Sanguine blood gives rise to hope and vigorPhlegmatic Phlegm gives rise to placidity Choleric yellow bile gives rise to anger Melancholy black bile gives rise to despairWe understand our emotions differently from those of other peopleCannon found that it was transection of neural pathways at a different level that had huge and striking effects on emotionsWhen the cerebral cortex is detached from the lower parts of the brain this results in extreme anger with no provocationCortex specifically the subcortical regions acts to inhibit its lower regions where emotions resideHess came up with the idea of implanting electrodes in brain regions and to electrically stimulating as the animals moved around freelyAffective defense reaction the cat in its defenseattack reaction turns against the nearest person participating in the experimentSuggested that one region of the hypothalamus was specialized to organize responses of fighting or fleeing From another region of the hypothalamus stimulation slowed the heart and induced calmness and drowsinessHypothalamus and limbic system are said to be lower in that
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