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Chapter 4

PSYC18 Chapter 4.docx

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Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18 Chapter 4  The communication of emotions is central to play, grieving, arguing, soothing, status negotiation, socialization, and persuasion  Express emotions verbally and non verbally Five Kinds of Non Verbal Behaviour  Some forms of non verbal communication can follow different emotional feelings; even those from the opposite valence.  Five categories  Emblems  Non verbal gestures that directly translate to words  Can vary in meaning across cultures  Illustrator  Non verbal gesture that accompanies speech, to make it vivid and visual  Like hand talking or emphasizing shit  Regulators  Non verbal behaviours that we use to coordinate conversation  Turn to and away from those we wish to and don’t wish to talk to respectively  Self-adaptors  Nervous behaviours people engage in with no seeming intention  Neck touching, hair tugging, leg bouncing, chin stroking  Non-verbal displays  Face, voice, body, and touch that convey emotion Facial Expressions of emotion  Markers of emotional expression  Fairly brief 1-10 seconds  Involve involuntary muscle actions that people cannot produce or suppress at will.  Have different Neuroanatomical basis than voluntary facial actions  Should have parallels in the displays of other species – part of Darwin’s theory bitch!!  Studies of the universality of facial expressions  Principle of serviceable habits = expressive behaviours that have led to rewards will happen again in the future  Principle of antithesis = opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions  Opposite action of muscles for opposite emotions  Principle of nervous discharge = excess, undirected energy is released in random expressions  Encoding hypothesis = if emotions are universal, experience of different emotions should be associate with the same distinct expressions across everything.  Decoding hypothesis = people should interpret these expressions in the same ways.  Dashiel method = which pic matches emotion in the story?  Critiques of study of universal facial expression  Gradient critique = some expressions are more universally recognized easier than others.  Forced choice critique = researches provided a set of responses. What if they described it in some word foreign to western expression? Or what if they described it synonymously?  Eckman and Friesen did this  To remedy, gather participants’ own response data and see if there is universality in their free response data  Found data that supported gradient critique  Gave the forced choice critique the fuck over  Ecological validity = expressions provided in the study are not the kinds of expressions people routinely judge in their day to day lives  Applies to the expression in the photo. Ecological validity of the photos  Actors in photos are good at manipulating this shit so expressions are ultimate exaggerated  Would everyday displays look different from the photos  Would more subtle emotions be as reliably judged  Discovering new facial displays of emotion  Contempt added to the list of universal emotions.  To document a new universal emotion, people need to be sure that encoding and decoding evidence are provided. That is, people portray the emotion uniquely and universally, and people interpret this unique facial expression in the same way respectively  Also must have evolutionary claims that other species show similar expressive behaviours in context that resemble ones of interest – abide by darwin’s principle bitch!!  Embarrassment  Maybe a reconciliatory action reflective of one’s status transgressions  2-3 second affective display. Eyes went down then turned head to side (typically left and down). As head movement occurred, person cracked a smile for 2 seconds while, at onset, lip sucks/presses/and puckers  While head was down to left, touch face, look up 2-3 times with furtive glances  Human display of embarrassment do resemble appeasement displays of other species  Gaze aversion interrupts escalating aggression  Head movements reduce size of body signalling submissiveness  Lip presses are a sign of inhibition  Face touching is somewhat mysterious  Displays of positive emotions  Love expressed in a coherent pattern of smiling, mutual gaze, affiliative hand gestures, open posture, and forward leans  Desire = lip related actions (lips, wipes, tongue protrusions)  Pride = opposite of weakness = expansive posture, head up and back  Sympathy = oblique eyebrows and concerned gaze. Increased he
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