PSYC18 Chapter 5
James and lange said emotions are in the bodily sensations
Emotion specific activation in ANS?
Do some body changes support action like fight or flight?
To what extent is emotion based on activation of ANS?
Do body changes produce experience of emotion?
Is body really primary organ of emotional experience?
Maintain internal condition of the body
Parasympa branch = restorative processes
Reduce heart rate and increase digestive process
Sympa branch increases heart rate, BP, and CO and shuts down digestive processes
Associated with defensive, aggressive, and sexual behaviour.
Sympa and Parasympa branches
pANS has vagus nerve at top and sacral region (bottom) of spinal cord
decreases HR and BP
dilates arteries to facilitate blood flow
increases blood to clit and penis
moving food through GI tract
constricts pupils and bronchioles
secretion of fluids in digestive glands, saliva, and tears
increases heart rate and BP and CO
contraction in organs during orgasm
contract piloerector muscles around the hair on our arms, neck, and back
increases glycogenolysis and frees fatty acids in blood stream
reduces activity of natural killer cells (immune system)
James lange theory = theory of autonomic specificity
Many pathways and many ways in which responses could combine
Each emotion has specific combination etc.
Cannon’s critique of ANS specificity
Body changes produced by brain
Similar changes during similar emotions
Arousal response and release of hormone adrenaline
Shift of bodily resources to prepare for action (fight, flight, fornicate)
Argued that lange’s pathways were too diffuse and general to account for varieties of
ANS responses too slow for how fast we feel emotion or switch emotion
ANS changes that lange claimed were emotion, happen during fever, cold, or asphyxia
We are insensitive to ACTUAL (physical) autonomic sensations
Too dull to give rise to emotions
People feel little sensation from cut or burn to intestines Two factor theory of emotion (schacter and Singer)
Shift emphasis on bodily responses to how people construe situations as the source of
different emotional experiences
Undifferentiated physiological arousal
Emphasis on appraisal
When there is no source available attribution, people blame current situation.
Misattribution of arousal. People who have just exercised find cartoons funnier and
erotica more arousing
Physical arousal and sometimes arousal from certain emotions can transfer to
other situations and alter our emotional experience of social world.
Evidence for autonomic specificity in emotions – support james lange theory
People thought that emotion = elevated sANS arousal
Eckman and friesen played with the facial muscles and noticed they “felt” differently
Directed facial action task = put your face like this, measure ANS response
Hypotheses = all emotions involve sANS activation. Negative emotions
increasing it and positive ones decreasing it.
Found that 4 negative emotions differ on certain measures of autonomic activity
Not a big heart rate increase for disgust
More GSR for fear and disgust but not anger and sadness
Increased finger temp for anger than fear
Found that when facial expressions were better display of emotion, judged by
experts, and they reported more of an emotional feeling, autonomic response
was more pronounced
Conducted same shit with people in Indonesia and found similar results to
suggest the shit might be universal.
In an imagery induced emotion thing, no difference noted among emotions
WRT physiological response. Real life inductions yielded physiological response
One ANS response different from the others
Associated with several states: modesty, embarrassment, shyness, and shame as per
Blush is product of self-focused attention
When we direct attention to any part of the body, blood flows to that region
In shyness or embarrassment, we think, “they can see my FACE.” So we blush
Negative self focused attention. – embarrassment
We blush when we are the objects and recipients of undesirabl