Textbook Notes (363,263)
Canada (158,281)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 3 – feeling versus thinking in the activation and application of stereotypes The question is when we have stereotypes about other groups, will we react on the basis of our stereotypes OR our negative feelings (prejudices). MOOD Affect influences the accessibility of constructs in memory and thus may determine which of many social representations are primed, and which characteristic in a given representation become activated. Types of intergroup affect Incidental affect is defined as the affect that is elicited by situations unrelated to the intergroup context, and integral affect is elicited within the intergroup context and involves the stereotyped outgroup and integral affect can also arise merely form thinking about the outgroup. Chronic outgroup affect is having a stable feeling toward the outgroup as a whole while episodic outgroup affect is a individual having an affective reaction within an interaction with a specific outgroup member. Chronic outgroup affect – research suggests that although the overt form of prejudice toward African Americans may be much less prevalent, prejudice continues to exist in a more subtle form. Aversive racists truly believe they are egalitarian and regard themselves as nonprejudiced; however, they also possess negative feelings about African Americans – they do this in a subtle, easily rationalizable fashion. When people feel negative affect, they are especially likely to describe racial outgroups using unfavourable characteristics. Research supports the notion that anxiety may be a common emotion felt among interactants in intergroup contexts. There are four types of emotion that appeared to be strongly related to ethnic attitudes: positive mood, anxiety, irritation, and concern. In sum, there appears to be a solid empirical basis for the notion that the intergroup context brings with it an emotional component for the interactants, and that factors such as proximity and degree of personal contact in the intergroup context, physical and personality characteristics of the outgroup members, etc. Episodic Outgroup Affect Incidental Affect It appears that affect induced in a context unrelated to the outgroup can have an impact on attitudes toward judgements about the outgroup. Influence on positive affect People who are happy tend to process information less analytically; they rely on heuristic cues, initial judgements, decisional shortcuts, and other simplifying strategies. Effects of negative affect Incidental anger and anxiety tend to lead to increased use of stereotypes in social judgements, whereas sadness does not lead to an increased tendency to stereotype others. Motivational versus cognitive-capacity deficits It is likely the case that investigating the separate effects these two factors have on the influence of mood on stereotyping may be fruitless because they are linked together. Also, other research says that moods do not have stable implications and that they have different meanings depending on the person’s interpretation of the mood. COGNITION Implicit cognition Subliminal messages – complex subliminal messages cannot be detected below the level of awareness but simple symbols, sounds, or words may be perceived below the level of awareness. Implicit memory Implicit measures of retention reflect unconscious learning and people with amnesia do show implicit memory through implicit tests. Implicit stereotyping Research has shown that whether one will stereotype another may be influenced by previous exposure to information, information the subject is unaware of at the time of subsequent testing and this is referred to implicit stereotyping. Spreading-activation model of memory says that when one thinks of a concept, related concepts are automatically activated in memory, and the time it takes to access those related concepts is markedly reduced as a result of the spreading activation. It is important that to establish an implicit stereotyping effect, the individual must not be aware of the influence of the prime on their responses to the subsequent words. The implicit Association Test If an individual shows a preference for a category, it just means there is a stronger association between certain traits and the category . IAT measures associations to a category. Automatically activated evaluations of an outgroup can be significantly influenced by moderating variables such as one’s motivation to control prejudiced responses. It was found that the predicitive validity of implicit attitudes is four times greater if the outgroup is perceive
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