Textbook Notes (368,330)
Canada (161,803)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC18H3 (275)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4.doc

5 Pages
117 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4: Communication of Emotions - the communication of emotion is central to play, grieving, arguing, soothing, status negotiation, persuasion and socialization - nonverbal communication  single words like “smile, touch, gaze, laugh” not enough to describe the language o many contrasting emotional connotations - 5 categories of nonverbal behaviour: o Emblems: nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words  E.g. rubbing forefinger with the other one = “shame on you”  emblems vary in their meaning across cultures o Illustrator: a nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech  slightly precede the corresponding word we say  E.g. nodding head when making important phrases, move torso to show empathy +facial gestures o Regulators: nonverbal behaviours that we use to coordinate conversation  E.g. looking and pointing to orient their bodies toward people they want to start speaking with + turn body away to stop speaking (regulators help regulate who talks in conversation) o Self-Adapter: nervous behaviours people engage in with no seeming intention (to release nervous energy)  E.g. touching necks, tug hair, jiggle legs, stroke their chins o Non-verbal expressions/displays of emotion: signals in the face, voice, body, and touch can convey emotion - Markers of Emotional Expressions o Emotional expressions are fairly brief (1-10 seconds)  Smile accompanying enjoyment = 1-10 secs  Polite smile with minimal emotion = ¼ of a sec – long period of time o Facial expressions of emotion = involuntary muscle actions (cannot be produced when they fee like it, cannot be suppressed)  different neuroanatomical basis  Anger = muscles tightening around mouth o emotional expressions have their parallels (homologues) in the display of other species (emotions derive from evolutionary heritage) - Universality of Facial Expressions: o Darwin: 3 principles to explain the appearance of emotional expressions  Principle of serviceable habits: expressive behaviours that have led to rewards will re-occur in the future  furrowing of eyebrow = protects eyes from attacks/aggression:. Furrow when angry  Principles of antithesis: opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions  strength/confidence expressed by expanding the chest and shoulders/ weakness expressed by opposite (shoulder shrug)  usually applies to embarrassment and pride  Principle of nervous charge: excess, undirected energy is released in random expressions  leg shakes, face touching, etc. o Encoding Hypothesis: if emotions are universal, the experience of different emotions should be associated with the same distinct facial expressions in every society worldwide o Decoding Hypothesis: if there are universal emotions, people of different cultures should interpret these expressions in the same way  Tested with facial expressions, voices expressions, and with touch o 6 different emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise  Accuracy rate to depict emotion from photo = 80-90% for Fore people (:. PART OF HUMAN NATURE) o Emotional expression recognition occurs early in development - Critiques to Universality of Facial Expressions: o Gradient critique: some emotional expressions were less well recognized (fear, surprise and disgust) and some emotional expressions were recognized universally (happiness, anger, sadness)  **gradient of recognition (TRUE) o Forced choice: participants are FORCED to label the expressions using terms the researcher provided (Fore people may name them differently, or have a whole new word for it)  **participants from strikingly different cultures still recognized facial expressions with similar expressions 1  ** from experiment conducted between U.S. and India with universality and free response data o Ecological validity: perhaps expressions portrayed in studies (Ekman’s) are not the kind of expressions that people routinely judge in their daily lives (facial expressions highly exaggerated by actors)  Would everyday, more subtle expressions of emotion, be reliably judged?? - People recognize emotions through dynamic displays better (video clips) - Other expressions of universality have been discovered!!! o Contempt (sneer), Exhilaration (laughter with the contraction of muscles surrounding eyes) o Specific emotion correlates with a unique pattern of facial actions (encoding evidence) that can be understood by different cultures of people (decoding evidence) - Embarrassment = appeasement-related emotion (signals one’s lower status  e.g. after transgressions to show social reconciliation) o Characterized the nonverbal act of embarrassment by subjecting participants to embarrassing procedures  E.g. Singing emphatically then watching one’s own performance with others  E.g. Keltner: Having a stern experimenter tell you to make odd facial expressions (with a stationary head position to record frame by frame analysis) • embarrassed expression shown in the first 2-3 seconds after the participant released odd facial expression (affective display) o Loss of physical poise and composure in front of others  involuntary muscle actions  looking down, turn head away, brief smile, mouth movements (lip press, suck), furtive glances, touching face etc.  Static photos of embarrassment also CAN BE distinguished from shame o Human embarrassment displays resemble the appeasement displays of other species - Displays of Positive Emotion o Commitment-based analysis:  love expressed in a coherent pattern of smiling, mutual gaze, affiliative hand gestures, open posture, forward leans  desire signals in lip-related action (licks, wipes, and tongue protrusions) o Pride:  Signals opposite from weakness:. postural expansion + backward head tilt + slight smile o Sympathy/Compassion:  Oblique eyebrows and concerned gaze (expression associated with increased helping behaviour) DIFFERENT from distress - SOME say (Russell and his colleagues): limited universality in emotional expressions o BUT preliminary evidence indicates that there may be universality in expressions of love, desire, shame, pride, embarrassment, sympathy - Facial expressions and the coordination of social interaction o Expressions of emotion are more than just signals of internal states o Facial expressions coordinate social interactions through their: INFORMATIVE, EVOCATIVE, & INCENTIVE functions  Informative: emotional experience and expression are sources of information about the social world • emotional displays = sender’s emotions, intentions, relationship with target + environment external to the relationship
More Less

Related notes for PSYC18H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit