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Chapter 7

Emotion Chapter 7, 8, 9, 11

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Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18 Chapter 7 Split brain operation: sever the corpus callosum o Patients IQ, personality, language and ability to engage in meaningful interactions are not diminished Right hemisphere responds more readily to the emotional content of stimuli, while the left is more ready to interpret experience in terms of language Primary appraisal: unconscious, and automatic; reflexive Secondary appraisal: potentially conscious, and thought-like Appraisal and Emotion Historical background and definitions Chrysippus distinguished between initial movements that were automatic and and secondary movements which involved mental thought Stress produces vigilant attention and heightened activity in the sympathetic branch of the ANS Prolonged stress can lead to heart disease, cancer, and even cell death in the hippocampus Lazarus said that the differences between stresses lie in the emotions He proposed that appraisals involve judgements of how good or bad an event is Steins view holds that (1) an event, usually unexpected, is perceived that changes the status of a valued goal; (2) beliefs are often challenged; this can cause bodily changes and expressions to occur; (3) plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate or modify the goal, and the likely results of the plans are considered Automatic appraisals of good and bad Viewed either happy or angry faces. A suboptimal subliminal condition showed them for 4milliseconds. Subliminal had no idea whether they saw happy or angry. For suboptimally presented faces, smiling faces led participants to express greater liking for the Chinese ideographs. No such priming occurred for those who were aware of the faces Is the bad stronger than the good? Our negative evaluations appear to be more potent than our positive ones Appraisal theories and distinct emotions Discrete approaches to appraisals: emphasize that unique appraisals give rise to different emotions Dimensional approaches to appraisals: focus on the many components of appraisals that relate to different emotions Discrete approaches to appraisal According to Lazarus, primary involves appraisal of event in terms of its relevance to goals evaluate whether the event is relevant to personal goals or not, then they appraise ongoing events in terms of the extent to which the event is congruent or incongruent with the persons goals Goal congruent events elicit positive events, and goal incongruent events produce negative emotions Then the individual appraises the event in terms of its relevance to more specific goals, or issues for the ego Oatley believes that primary elicits a basic emotion and that each of the basic emotions has the function of setting the brain into a mode adapted to deal with a recurring situation not just of positive or negative but of a small number of basic emotions Each mode is a state of readiness with a distinct phenomenological tone, but no necessary verbal meaning Core relational theme: the essential meaning for each emotions; secondary appraisal Dimensional approaches to appraisal Ellsworth highlighted two reasons why we need to view appraisals from another perspective (1) similarities between emotions approaches to emotions as discrete, highlight the differences between emotions in terms of their eliciting appraisals, but certain emotions elicit similar feelings (2) inability to account for transitions between emotions Ellsworth has 8 dimensions of appraisal: attentions, anticipate effort, certainty, control-coping, legitimacy, pleasantness, perceived obstacle, responsibility Found that the combination of control and responsibility, called agency, was the critical dimension that differentiate three negative emotions: anger, sadness, and guilt Weiner and Graham found that some distinct emotions depend on attributions: the explanations of the causes of events that people give Critiques of appraisal research and new methods for studying appraisal Several critiques for the retrospective, self-report study of appraisal The evidence from studies like Ellsworth and Weiner are not causal they did not document how appraisals cause emotion The is reason to doubt whether the kinds of conscious assessments of appraisal that Smith and Ellsworth gathered actually correspond emotion Diary studies: people report on their daily emotional experiences in diary-like entries less subject to the biases of retrospective, self-report methods a second new approach is to identify appraisals as they occur, and ascertain whether emotion-specific appraisals relate to other measures of emotional response Cultural variation in appraisal Certain studies point to a surprising degree of universality in the elicitors of emotion Knowledge of emotion People have a powerful tendency to confide their emotional experiences in others called social sharing, and it occurs even for emotions such as guilt and shame Emotion words Emotion lexicon: an important component of emotion knowledge; vocabulary of emotion words Applying a label to an emotional experience helps identify the intentional object of an experience: what the emotion is specifically about Emotion words direct us to the focus of the experience shape diffuse experiences into more specific emotional experiences Many emotions have a metaphorical content. Metaphors: concepts that people use to describe other concepts that are typically more abstract or hard to describe Five metaphors that speakers of English frequently use to describe emotional experience o Emotions are natural forces swept away by our emotions o Emotions are opponents we struggle, and fight off emotions o Emotions are diseases we are sick with love o We conceptualize our emotions are fluids in a container simmer with rage o We refer to emotions as animals, or living objects Our emotion lexicon has structure there are 3 levels to our emotion knowledge Superordinate level: knowledge is a basic distinction between positive and negative Basic level: love, joy, surprise, anger, sadness, fear Subordinate level: specific states; states that in fundamental ways share properties of the basic emotion concept above them Cultures vary in the number of words that represent emotion Cultures vary in which states they represent with emotion terms Cultures vary according to whether they hypoercognize an emotion Concepts of emotion as prototypes Prototypes: what we rely on to talk and understand Script: peoples everyday prototype of an emotion refers to a characteristic outline of a sequence of events Paradigm scenarios: participants offer scripts of different emotions Prototype perspective assumes that there are no sharp boundaries between emotion categories; a prototype approach helps account for the varieties of experiences that are represented by one category of emotion Categorical properties of emotion knowledge It appears that we do think about emotion in terms of categories with distinct boundaries between one another Experience Measurement of experience Adjective check-lists: method to assess positive and negative moods agree disagree to statements 5-point scale On a scale from 1-10, circle how blank applies to you Specific emotions and core affect Two forms at attempting to answer the fundamental elements of emotional experience: (1) experience of certain basic emotions that include happy, sad, angry, fear, is taken as irreducible (occur in free-floating form without any relation to external events); (2) experience has sometimes been derived from more primitive elements that are not themselves emotions (core affect valence and arousal) Core affect is felt as more diffuse moods Chapter 8 Development of Emotions in Childhood The emergence of emotions Emotions in the first year of life Emotional development is social development Emotional expressions are outward and visible signs of inner programs The faces infants make to disgust are similar to those of other primates Early smiles among infants are not usually social; social smiles do not usually emerge until one or two months month 2 a result of gentle stroking and month 3 from caregiver interaction 3 month old response is the same as the response in an adult (smiling) Infants smiles draw attention from adults Also found other emotions (anger, fear, sadness) among 3 month olds Dynamic systems Some researchers argue that infants negative emotions are only of undifferentiated distress but at different levels of intensity Most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, as anger, or as blends of discrete expressions Contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscles when making negative expressions Only difference between distress-pain and anger is that anger has eyes open Proposal that emotions develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems Neuropsychological programs do not come genetically specified as ready- assembled packages Such packages do occur, but they are constructed during early life from lower-level genetically derived components, which are formed into distinct structures by interaction among the components, and by interaction of babies with other people Idea of self-organizing system is that certain kinds of interactions among parts of a system maintain their relationship and overall form because the forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might impinge on the system from outside Componential theories of adult emotions: compo
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