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Emotions notes, 1, 2, 4, 10 .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
Professor
Rimma Teper
Semester
Summer

Description
UnderstandingEmotionsChapter1ApproachestoUnderstandingEmotionsWhatisEmotionFirstIdeasEmotionsarehardtodefineoTohaveagooddefinitionyouneedagoodtheoryAnemotionisapsychologicalstateorprocessthatmediatesbetweenourconcernsorgoalsandeventsinourworldRatherthanthinkingemotionsareirrationalpsychologistsnottendtothinkofemotionsasbeinglocallyrationaltheirrationalitydoesntrangeoverallpossibleconsiderationsoEmotionsarerationalinthattheyhelpusdealadaptivelywithconcernsspecifictoourcurrentcontextoEmotionstooarethesourceofourvaluesincludingourdeepestvalueswhomandwhatwelovewhatwedislikewhatwedespiteoMostimportantlyouremotionshelpusformandengageourrelationshipsNineteenthCenturyFoundersModernideasaboutemotionscanbethoughtofasderivingfromCharlesDarwinWilliamJamesandSigmundFreudCharlesDarwinTheevolutionaryapproachHeisthecentralfigureinmodernbiologyandpublishedthemostimportantbookonemotionsyetwrittenTheexpressionoftheemotionsinmanandanimals1872EarlyinthebookTheOriginofSpecies1859hehaddescribedhowalllivingthingshaveevolvedtobeadaptedtotheirenvironmentsoDarwinwouldhaveproposedthatemotionshadfunctionsinoursurvivalmanypsychologistthoughhesaidthisbuthedidntoIn1838atthattimetheacceptedtheorywasthatGodhadgivenhumansspecialfacialmusclesthatallowedthemtoexpresshumansentimentsoAlthoughDarwintheorizedthathumansaredescendantsfromotherspecieswearenotonlyclosertoanimalthanhadbeenthoughtbutweoueselvesarekindofanimalsDarwinasked2braodquestionsthatstillguideouremotionsresearcho1Howareemotionsexpressedinhumansandotheranimalso2WheredoouremotionscomefromHeproposedthatemotionscamefromourevolutionarypastthathadoncebeenusefulEmotionscanbethoughtofasbeingbasedonreflexivelikemechanismsandsomeofthemoccurwhethertheyareusefulornotHethoughtthatemotionalexpressionswereliketheappendixasmallorganthatispartofthegutbutwhichseeminglyhasnofunctionHeproposedthatthisisevidencethatwearedescendantsfromprehumanancestorsinwhomthisorganhaduseHealsoarguesthatmanyemotionalexpressionshavethesamequalityForDarwinemotionslinkustothepastofourspeciesandtoourinfancyDarwinalsothoughtthatemotionshaveusefulfunctionstheyhelpusnavigateoursocialinteractionsWilliamJamesthePhysiologicalapproachHearguedagainstthecommonsenseideathatwhenwefeelanemotionitimpelsisinacertainwaythatifweweretomeetabearinthewoodswewouldfeelfrightenedandrunoInsteadheproposedthatwhenweseethebeartheexcitingfactasheputittheemotionsistheperceptionofchangesofourbodyaswereacttothatfactHisideaisaboutthenatureofemotionalexperienceThecoreofemotionisthepatternofbodilyresponsesFirstJamesconcentratedonexperienceandarguedthatthisexperienceisembodiedoFirstlyHeproposedthatourexperienceofmanyemotionsfromfeartojoyinvolveschangesoftheautonomicnervoussystemaswellaschangesfromthemovementsofmusclesandjointsAutonomicnervoussystemThepartofthenervoussystemthatconcernsinnerorgansincludingtheheartthebloodvesselsthestomachandthesweatglandsoJamespromptedmoderninterestinthephysiologicalreactionsassociatedwiththedifferentemotionsSecondlyheproposedthatemotionsgivecolourandwarmthtoexperienceoWithouttheseeverythingwouldbepaleSigmundFreudThePsychotherapeuticApproachHeproposedthatcertaineventscanbesodamagingthattheyleaveemotionalscarsthatcanshapetherestofourlivesHewasoneofthefirsttoarguethatemotionswascoretomanymentalillnessesLikeDarwinhethoughtthatanemotioninthepresentcouldderivefromoneinthepastinthepatientsearlylifeThemethodFreuddevelopedwascalledpsychoanalysisPsychoanalysiswasoneoftheearliestandmostinfluentialpsychotherapyitisoftencriticizedespeciallybytherapistswhoprefernewermethodssuchasbehavioraltherapyFreudsworksuggeststhatemotionallifeofadulthoodderivesfromrelationshipswehadchildhoodwithparentsorothercaregiversFreudstheorieswerealsocriticaltotheinfluentialtheoristRichardLazarus1991whocombinedthemwiththeDarwinianevolutionaryideaofadaptationtoproposethatemotionsderivefromhowweevaluateeventsintheenvironmentinrelationtooutgoals
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