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Chapter 8

PSYC18 Chapter 8 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 8 Understanding the development of emotions includes understanding how biologically based expressions enable infant and parent to communicate and how such expressions take on the forms of culture and individualityEmotions in the first year of life Emotional development is a social development Important way of thinking about emotions is that there is a small set of primary emotions Discrete emotions tomkin proposes that each emotion comes as an innate package with its own neural program emotional expressions are than visible signs of inner programs When child first born not much differentiation but as development process specific emotions are expressed in forms recognizable to othersFacial expression of digust present in infants in response to sour tastes but emotions other than disgust are hard to distinguish in the first few days of lifeBy two months adult can see happiness Babies can smile in the first few weeks but its not social social smile emerge after the first month or two In second month smile occur with gentle stroking in the third month they emerge by frequent interaction with caregiver a situation that is associated with happiness By the third month toddlers smile in response to the same kinds of events that make older chikdren and adults happy Smiling also occurs when infants master skills in a study infant seated in a chair and given a string when string pulled music turned on mastery of skill made them happy One function of infants smile is to make adults interested and happy even before infants can direct expressions at specific people their smiles function to draw adults into affectionate interactionEvidence for the early expression of distinctnegative emotion is more problematic Oster et al has argued that babies negaitive expressions show only undifferentiated distress while Izard and malatesta argue that expressions of anger fear and sadness can be seen from early on
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