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PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 1

PSYC18 chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 1Approaches to Understanding Emotions th19 Century Founders y 3 theoristsDarwin James and Freud laid foundations for not just understanding emotions but whole fields respectively of evolutionary biology psych and psychotherapy Darwin y 1872Darwin central figure of modern bio published most important book on emotions everExpression of Emotions in Man and Animalsy Origin of Species described how living things have evolved to be adapted to environments y Began writing notes on emotions in 1838 o At time accepted theory was God gave humans special facial muscles that allowed them to express uniquely human sentiments unknown to animals y Central tenet of Darwin theory was that humans are descended from other speciesnot only closer to animals that thought but humans are animals y Observed emotional expressions in nonhuman species as well as adult and infant humans y Developed new methods realizing importance of cross cultural study Was one of first to use questionnairessent set of printed questions to missionaries and others o Received 36 replies y Was one of first to use photographs of naturalistic and posed expressions to make scientific points y In book of emotions asked 2 questions that guide emotion research today o How are emotions expressed in humans and other animals o Where do our emotions come from y Concluded that emotional expression derive largely from habits that in evolutionary or individual past had once been useful y Emotional expressions showed continuity of adult human behavioural mechanisms with those of lower animals and with those of infancy y Thought emotional expressions were like vestigial parts of our bodiesy Darwin argued that sneering an expression in which we uncover teeth or one side is behavioural vestige of snarling and of preparing to bite y Traced other expressions to infancycrying is vestige of screaming in infancy though in adulthood partly inhibitedo When adults cry still secrete tears but argued that tears no longer have protective function y Suggested that patterns of adult affection of taking those whom we love in our arms are based on patterns of parents hugging infants y Emotions link us to past both past of species and own infancy o In making argument he would shape contemporary study of emotions o Helped provide descriptions of facial expressions y Argued for universality of expressions and uncommon view at time y Thought that emotions have useful functions too William JamesThe Bodily Approach y Wrote The Principles of Psychology 1890y Argued against commonsense idea that when we feel emotion it impels us to certain kind of activitythat if we were to meet bear in woods feel frightened
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