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PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18- Chapter 1- Approaches to understanding emotions It has often been thought that anger is destructive to the self and to social relations The most early theorists of emotions, the Epicureans and Stoics thought that emotions are irrational and damaging 19 century founders 3 theorists: Darwin, James and Freud Darwin: the evolutionary approach Darwin did not say that we have emotions because they function in our survival He believed that humans are descended from other species; we are not only closer to animals but we ourselves are animals He observed emotional expressions in nonhuman species as well as adult and infant humans; he was interested in both normal and abnormal He was one of the first to use questionnaires and first to use photographs of naturalistic and posed expressions to make scientific points Darwin asked 2 main questions in his book on emotions. First, how are emotions expressed in humans and other animals? Second, where do our emotions come from? He concluded that emotional expressions derive from habits that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful For Darwin, emotional expressions showed the continuity of adult human behavioural mechanisms with those of lower animals and with those of infancy He thought that emotions were like vestigial parts of our bodies; he believed that sneering, an expression in which we partially uncover the teeth on one side is a behavioural vestige of snarling, and of preparing to bite. This preparation was functional in some distant ancestor but is so no longer Darwin traced other expressions to infancy: crying is the vestige of screaming in infancy, though in adulthood it is partly inhibited One of his most interesting suggestions is that patterns of adult affection, of taking those whom we love in our arms, are based on patterns of parents hugging young infants www.notesolution.com
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