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Chapter 2

Psychology of Emotion chapter 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
G Cupchik

Psychology of Emotion Chapter2 A piece of Darwins evidence was the similarity of human emotional expressions to those of lower animalsDarwin argues that human emotional expressions have some primitive aspects Elements of an evolutionary approach to emotions The engine that drives evolution has three partsfirst superabundance animals and plants produce more offspring than necessary merely to reproduce themselves second variation which is each offspring is somewhat different than others and differences arecharacteristics that allow the individual passed on heredity and third is natural selectionto be adapted to the environment are selected for disadvantageous characteristics are selected against Selection pressures Selection pressures are for humans the features of the physical and social environment in which humans evolved that determined whether or not individuals survived and reproduced To survive the individual needs to find food and water to stay warm but avoid extreme heat to avoid predation and disease Many systems such as our preferences for sweet foods and aversion to bitter foods our thermoregulatory systems our fight and flight responses developed in response to these kinds of selection pressuresThere are also hereditary elements Intrasexual competitionoccurs within a sex for access to mates In many species there is intense and continu al struggle of this kind often most pronounced among male eg many battles amongst males showing who is strongest amongstthe males to determine who rises in status and who will have more access to young women the traits that allow those to prevail are more likely to be passed on to succeeding generations Intersexual Competitions refers to the process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex eg in humans its seen in females like they select for certain traits in males eg social status which ultimately affects the amount of resources one has and will benefit the offspring having more resources and for men in turn is full lips youthful skin hour glass body which are signs of optimal reproductive age Humans capacity to cooperate is a determinant of who reproduces and who survives A second important concept of evolutionary theory is Adaptation Adaptations are genetically based traits that allow the organism to respond well to specific selection pressures and to survive and reproduceSome adaptations include like taste buds like tasting bitter foods when we taste them we dont like it which keeps us away from toxinsTo meet these problems the reasoning goes humans have evolved preferences for potential mates who show signs of fertility and reproductive readinessThe overwhelming love parents feel for their offspring in response to babylike features large forehead big eyes small chin their smiles coos and laughs their smells and the
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