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Emotions ch 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
G Cupchik

Emotions ch 2darwin dethroned human being from their place as unique creations in the image of God Darwins evidence was the similarity of human emotional expressions to those of lower animals his broader theory of evolution would change how scholars think about emotions Elements of an evolutionary approach to emotionsThe engine that drives evolution has 3 partsy Superabundance animals and plants produce more offspring than necessary merely to reproduce themselves y Variation each offspring is somewhat different than others differences are passed by heredity y Natural selection characteristics that allow the individual to be adapted to the environment are selected for disadvantageous characteristics are selected againstSelection pressures selection pressures these features of the physical and social environment that determined whether or not individuals survived and reproducedtwo kinds of sexual selection pressures determine who reproduces y Intrasexual competition occurs within a sex for access to mates Traits that allows some to prevail over others are more likely to be passed on to succeeding generations y Intersexual competition refers to the process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex In the preference women report for males of higher status males seek out mates who are fertile our capacity to cooperate is a powerful determinant of who reproduces and who survives we are more likely to succeed at these endeavors when we behave in cooperative fashionAdaptation they are genetically based traits that allow the organism to respond well to specific selection pressures and to survive and reproduce humans have been designed by evolution to meet specific problems and opportunities humans have evolved preferences for potential mates who show signs of fertility and reproductive readiness exposure to parasites early in development is associated with facial symmetry not all human traits or behaviors are adaptations they are byproducts evolution is a tinkerer and often endows old anatomical and behavioral features with new functions A trait that acquires new functions is called an exaptationa brief raising of the eyebrows lasting a fraction of a second occurs when people approach one another during greeting and in flirting human universal natural selection is based on genetic variation and selects for genetically based traits that help certain individuals meet selection pressures genes provide potentialities for behavior
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