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Chapter 4

Chapter 4. Communication of Emotions

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Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 4. Communication of Emotions Thursday, February 10, 2011 12:22 AM Nonverbal communication: { Emblems: nonverbal gestures that directly translate into words (i.e. the peace sign). Vary their meaning across cultures. { Illustrator: a nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech, and often makes it vivid and visual. { Regulator: nonverbal behaviours that we use to coordinate conversation. { Self-adapter:nervous behaviours people engage in with no seeming intention, as if simply to release nervous energy. Markers of emotional expressions. 1. Expressions of emotions tend to be fairly brief, typically lasting between 1 to 10 seconds. A polite smile does not accompany the experience of emotion might be exceptionally brief (less than a second) or very long (lasting throughout an unpleasant dinner party). 2. Facial expressions involve involuntary muscle actions that people cannot produce when they feel like it, and cannot suppress, even when told to do so. 3. Emotional expressions should have their parallels, or homologues, in the displays of other species. Darwin proposed three principles to explain why emotional expressions have the appearance that they do. 1. Principle of serviceable habits, expressive behaviours that have led to rewards will re-occur in the future. 2. Principle of antithesis, holds that opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions. 3. Principle of nervous discharge, excess, undirected energy is released in random expressions, such as face touches, leg jiggles, and the like. Encoding hypothesis: if emotions are universal, the experience of different emotions should be associated with the same distinct facial expressions in every society, worldwide. Decoding hypothesis: if there are universal emotions, people of different cultures should interpret these expressions in the same ways. Ekman used the Dashiell method on the Fore people, with stories for each of the six emotions. { Both US college students and Fore people correctly identified the right emotions of each other. Critiques on the hypothesis of universal facial expression: { Gradient critique. Gradients between the recognition of some expressions that are well recognized universally, like happiness are less well recognized by people in cultures remote from those of the person portraying the expression. { Forced choice. Participants are forced to label the expressions that researchers have provided. { Ecological validity. Perhaps expressions portra
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