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PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Textbook

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 1: Approaches to Understanding Emotions Introduction many thinkers have argued that our emotions are base and destructive that more noble reaches of human nature are achieved when our passions are controlled by our reason the Epicureans and Stoics thought that emotions are irrational and damaging Nineteenth-century founders three theorists: Darwin, James, and Freud Charles Darwin: the evolutionary approach one of the first to use questionnaires and photographs of naturalist and posed expressions concluded that emotional expressions derive largely from habits emotional expressions showed the continuity of adult human behavioral mechanisms with those of lower animals and with those of infancy thought emotional expressions were like vestigial parts of our bodies emotions link us to our past, both to the past of our species and to our own infancy William James: the bodily approach when we perceive the object, the exciting fact, the emotion is the perception of changes to our body as we react to that fact his theory is really about the nature of emotional experience the core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responses 1) stressed that our experience of many emotions, from fear to joy, is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous system, that part of the nervous system that supplies inner organs including the heart, the blood vessels, the stomach, and the sweat glands 2) proposed that emotions give color and warmth to experience Sigmund Freud: the psychoanalytic approach proposed that certain events, usually of a sexual kind, can be so damaging that they leave psychological scars that can affect the rest of our lives story of Katharina Philosophical and literary approaches Aristotle: the conceptual approach that emotions are connected with action that they depend on what we believe, that they are evaluations, so we are responsible for our emotions because we are responsible for our beliefs and valuations of the world three principles of how we persuade others: o a hearer is more likely to believe a good person than a bad one o people are persuaded when what is said stirs their emotions different judgments give rise to different emotions o people are persuaded by arguments that seem truthful emotions shape our judgments and evaluations www.notesolution.com
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