Textbook Notes (363,221)
Canada (158,273)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Textbook

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 4: Communication of Emotions A layered and varied language by which women and men negotiate romantic inclinations The communication of emotion is central to play, grieving, arguing, soothing, status negotiation, persuasion, and socialization People express emotions with facial actions, with their voice, with touch, with posture, and with their gait Five kids of nonverbal behavior Often single words like smile fail adequately to describe the language of nonverbal communication Five categories of nonverbal communication: o Emblems: nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words May vary across cultures e.g. hand signs o Illustrator: nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech and often makes it vivid and visual e.g. hand gestures when we speak o Regulators: nonverbal behaviors that we use to coordinate conversion e.g. orientation of their bodies toward people whom they wish to start speaking o Self-adaptor: nervous behaviors people engage in with no seeming intention, as if simply to release nervous energy e.g. touching of necks, jiggling of legs, stroking of chins, etc o Nonverbal expressions or displays of emotion: signal in the face, voice, body, and touch that convey emotion Facial expressions of emotion The markets of emotional expressions 1. Expressions of emotions tend to be fairly brief, typically lasting between 1 and 10 seconds 2. Facial expressions of emotion involve involuntary muscle actions that people cannot produce when they feel like it, and cannot suppress, even when instructed to do so Affective displays, as opposed to mock or feigned expressions, are reliable indicators of the individuals feeling 3. Emotional expressions should have their parallels, or homologues, in the displays of other species Studies of the universality of facial expressions Darwin proposed three principles to explain why emotional expressions have the appearance that they do: o Principle of serviceable habits: expressive behaviors that have led to rewards will re- occur in the future o Principle of antithesis: opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions Probably at play in the properties of expressions of embarrassment and pride o Principle of nervous discharge: excess, undirected energy is released in random expressions www.notesolution.com
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