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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 book notes on Understanding Emotions

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 2 Evolution of Emotions N Evolution from other animals has become the central theory in biology, offering insights into the nature of emotion N Darwin; argued that human emotional expressions have some primitive aspects, similar to lower animals. o Ex: some expression, such as bristling of the hair when scared, or uncovering of the teeth when in rage Elements of an evolutionary approach to emotions N Superabundance animals and plants produce more offspring than necessary to reproduce themselves N Variation offspring is somewhat different than others N Natural Selection characteristics that allow an individual to be adapted to the environment are selected for; disastrous characteristics are selected against 1) Selection pressures N Natural selection = Selection pressures N Features of the environment (social and physical) determine whether or not individual survive and reproduce. N Need to find food and water, stay warm N Need to avoid predation and disease N === N Intrasexual competition occurs within a sex for access to mates. Traits, whether it be strength, beauty, humor, allow some to prevail over others are more likely to be passed on to succeeding generations. N Intersexual competition process by which one sex select specific kinds of traits in the other sex. In humans, this is seen in the preference women report for males of higher status. Conversely, males might seek out mates who are fertile and of optimal reproductive age. 2) Adaptation N Genetically based traits that allow the organism to respond well to specific selection pressures and to survive and reproduce N Ex: preference for sweet tastes helps us identify nutritional value of foods N Ex: morning sickness during pregnancy as a mechanism to avoid intake of certain toxins? N === N Not all
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