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PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6. Emotions and the Brain

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 6. Emotions and the Brain Monday, February 14, 2011 7:02 PM Neuroimaging: display and analysis of images of brain processes, derived from scanning the brain and making computational constructions of specific brain activities. { Include PET and fMRI that show brain activity changes over time. Hindbrain includes regions that control basic physiological processes: the medulla regulates cardiovascular activity, the pons controls human sleep, the cerebellum is involved in controlling motor movement. The forebrain includes the thalamus which is involved in integrating sensory information, the hippocampus critical for memory processes, and the hypothalamus which regulates important biological functions like eating, sexual behaviour, and aggression. Within the forebrain, limbic system with structures involved in emotion like the amygdala sets human brain apart from that of other species. Cats deprived of their cortex were liable to make sudden, inappropriate, and ill-directed attacks called sham rage. { Children abound with uncontrolled emotion until their cortex develops sufficiently to inhibit their lower functions. { Similar to Phineas Gage. MacLean proposed that the human brain has three distinct systems, each of which developed in a distinct phase of vertebrate evolution, with each system fulfilling new functions. { Striatal region is the earliest and most basic part of the forebrain (apart from the hypothalamus). Became enlarged with the evolution of reptiles and provides the basis for all animal behaviour evolved from this stock. Devoted to scheduling and generating basic behaviours including prep and establishment of home site, marking and patrolling of territory, etc. When damaged, it becomes Huntingdons chorea, a hereditary disease in which parents are unable to organize daily activities. { Limbic system has close connections with mammals and the hypothalamus. Maternal caregiving with infant attachment is what makes mammals different from reptiles. Enable increasing sociality in mammals. { Neocortex is distinctive to higher mammals, has reached its highest level of development in human beings (80% of the whole brain is taken up by it). Prefrontal cortex (wanting and liking) has three areas of interest: the
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