Textbook Notes (363,507)
Canada (158,391)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Textbook

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 5: Bodily Changes and Emotion William James contended that an emotionally exciting fact provokes bodily responses, which in turn lead to the experience of emotion My thesis is that the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact, and that our feeling of the same changes as they occur is the emotion That every emotion, from anger to sympathy to the rapturous delight of hearing a favorite musician, involves a distinct bodily reverberation detected by the autonomic nervous system and by neural signals from the workings of our muscles The autonomic nervous system Neural signals from the cortex communicate with the limbic system and the hypothalamus These brain regions send signals through clusters of neurons of the autonomic nervous system to the target organs, glands, muscles, and blood vessels These structures, in turn, send signals back via the autonomic nervous system to the hypothalamus, limbic system, and cortex The autonomic nervous system most general function is to maintain the internal condition of the body, to enable adaptive response to varying environmental events Parasympathetic branch: helps with the restorative processes, reducing heart rate and blood pressure and increasing digestive processes Sympathetic branch: increases heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output and shuts down digestive processes, to help the individual to engage in physically demanding actions The autonomic nervous system maintains the inner environment of the body, to enable the individuals adaptive response to varying external environmental events o It controls processes such as digestion, body fluids, blood flow, and temperature The system is also closely associated with various behaviors with direct relevance to emotion, including defensive behavior, sexual behavior, and aggression The systems two branches originate in different parts of the spinal cord and that are controlled by different neurotransmitters The parasympathetic and sympathetic branches The parasympathetic autonomic nervous system incorporates nerves that originate in two different parts of the spinal cord: the vagus nerve, at the top of the spinal cord, and in the sacral region near the bottom of the spinal cord o This system decreases heart rate and blood pressure o Essential to the sexual response o It stimulates the secretion of various fluids throughout the body, including those in the digestive glands, salivation, and tears The sympathetic system involves over a dozen different neural pathways originating at several sites on the spinal cord o Most typically acts in the opposite way from the parasympathetic system o It increases heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output o Shuts down digestive processes o May be part of certain emotional responses that involve goose-bumps o Also increases many processes that provide energy for the body www.notesolution.com
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