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G Cupchik (49)
Chapter 1

Chapter One

6 Pages

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G Cupchik

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Chapter OnePage 1 of 6Chapter One Approaches to Understanding Emotions Nineteenth Century FoundersCharles Darwin the evolutionary approachThe expression of the emotions in man and animals 1872The origin of species 1859 o Described how living things have evolved to be adapted to their environmentsHe observed emotion expressions in nonhuman species as well as in adult and infant humansCross cultural studies questionnairesAsked to observe particular expressions in other culturesDarwin concluded that emotional expressions derive largely from habits that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful These are based on reflexlike mechanismsThought of emotional expressions like vestigial parts of our bodiesOur emotions link us to the pastboth the past of our species and our own infancyHelped provide descriptions of facial expressionsArgued for the universality of expressionsThought that emotions have useful functions tooWilliam James the bodily approachThe principles of psychology 1890William James argued against the commonsense idea that when we feel an emotion it impels us to a certain kind of activitythat if we were to meet a bear in the woods we would feel frightened and runInstead James thought that when we perceive the object of fear a bear the exciting fact as he put it then the emotion is the perception of changes of our body as we react to that fact When we feel frightened James thought what we feel is our heart beating our skin cold our posture frozen or our legs carrying us away as fast as possibleHe focuses on the nature of emotional experienceThe core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responsesOur experience of many emotions is the set of changes in the ANSEmotions give colour and warmth to experienceSigmund Freud the psychoanalytic approachProposed that certain events can be so damaging that they leave psychological scarsCase of KatharinaEmotions are at the core of many pathologies Philosophical and Literary ApproachesAristotle the conceptual approachEmotions are connected with actionEmotions depend on what we believetheyre evaluations
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