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PSYC18H3 (275)
Chapter 3

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Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 3The construction of emotions in the westRomanticismperiod that started around 1750 in Europe in which primacy of the natural and of the emotions was stressed as compared with the artificial and with the dictates of convenionIn romantic era emotions came to be valued in personal life in politics in literature and in philosophyExpress their emotions through art and to move reader audiences viewers and listeners to emotional experienceWriting itself became a way of discovering inner emotional truths emotions experienced and accepted become an ideal to be cultivatedJean Jacques Rousseau who was the first published the idea that religious sensibility is based on how your feel rather than on authority or on scripture or on argument for the existence of godThe elements of a cultural approach to emotionCultural approach involves the assumption that emotions are constructed primarily by the processes of cultureThey are like languages or words of art They are radically different across different culturesA second assumption of some cultural approaches is that emotions can be thought of as roles that people fulfills to play out culturespecific identities and relationshipsThe selfconstrual approach independent and interdependent selves The declaration of independence prioritized the rights and freedoms of the individuals and it protected the individual from having those rights and liberties infringed by otherIn western societies people are concerned about their individuality about selfactualizing about freedom and selfexpression Confucius emphasized the importance of knowing ones place in society of honoring traditions and roles and of thinking of others before the selfIn Asian cultures homiliesand folk wisdom encourage a markedly different selfSelf construalThe independent selfIm autonomous separate I have unique trait and preferences my behavior is caused by internal causes who I am is stable across contextsThe interdependent selfIm connected to other I fulfill roles and duties my behavior is the result of the social context my identity varies across contextsSo how these culture specific self construal lead to cultural variation in emotionsEg anger is considered highly inappropriate between relations or colleagues for Japanese by contrast anger between Americans who know and like each other is relatively common and acceptedMiyaje 1986 showed interesting toys to American and Japanese infants of 11 months pairing
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