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PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18 Chapter 6 TextBook Notes Chapter 6: Emotions and the Brain Treatment of the survivors of the sleeping sickness (encephalitis lethargic), a disease that started in Europe in the winter of 1916-17. o Continued for 10 years, affected five million people o Victims fell into a suspended state as if they were ghostzombies, they sat motionless and speechless all day observing but doing nothing. o In 1969, a precursor of the transmitter substance dopamine was discovered that became the drug, i-Dopa. Some of the transmitter functions were restored There was a rise in emotions of joy and excitement, mood swings This case illustrates how brain regions and neurotransmitters are intimately involved in emotions. How do brain mechanisms of emotions work? Human brain has about 100,000,000,000 neurons o They each may have 10,000 150,000 synapses. Neuroimaging: a machine monitors biochemical events in a series of conceptual slices through a persons brain, while a computer takes this information and constructs visual images of the brain to show which regions have been metabolically most active. These are non-invasive methods. o Positron Emission Tomography (PET) o Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining (fMRI) Movie pictures are constructed to show brain activity changing over time in the course, i.e. different emotional states. Physiologists have recorded the electrical activity of single neuronsgroups of neurons. o Anatomy, lesions, stimulation, pharmacology, electrical recording. hindbrain includes regions that control basic physiological processes www.notesolution.com medulla regulates cardiovascular activity pons controls human sleep cerebellum is involved in controlling motor movements forebrain includes the thalamus which is involved in integrating sensory information o the forebrain also includes the limbic system Limbic system with structures involved in emotions like the amygdale and the cortex which most sets human brain apart from other species. The growth of the cortex is closely associated with our abilities to lead complex social lives. The frontal lobes of the cortex is also associated with planning and intentional action, as well as emotional regulation. the hippocampus which is critical for memory processes hypothalamus which regulates important biological functions like eating, sexual behaviour, aggression, and bodily temperature. 350 years ago, Decartes proposed that the sensory nerves were controlled by strings and hydraulics human reflex. Involving events (stimuli) that excite sensory receptiors, which send messages to the sensory nerves to the brain, then send signals to mortor nerves to work the muscles o However, emotions are more than reflexes Early research on brain lesions and stimulation Cannon o Proposed the first substantial theory of the brain mechanisms of emotion o Indicated that cats deprived of their cortext were liable to make sudden, inappropriate and ill-directed attacks. shame rage If fed artificially and carefully tended, these cats can live for a long time, but would show few spontaneous movements expect this angry shame rage. o Cannon proposed that the cortex usually inhibits this expression www.notesolution.com
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