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Psychology (9,695)
PSYC18H3 (275)
G Cupchik (49)
Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
Professor
G Cupchik
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2Evolution of EmotionsThe line that led to modern humans is thought to have diverged from that leading to modern chimpanzees some six million years agoDarwin dethroned human beings from place as unique creations of God o Evidencesimilarity of human emotional expressions to those of lower animals o Argued that human emotional expression have primitive aspectsDarwins specific analysis of facial expression would give birth to modern study of emotional expressionBroader theory of evolution changed how scholars think about emotion Elements of an Evolutionary Approach To EmotionsEngine that drives evolution has 3 parts o 1 Superabundance animals and plants produce more offspring necessary merely to reproduce themselves o 2 Variation each offspring is somewhat different than others o 3 Natural Selection characteristics that allow individual to be adapted to environment are selected for disadvantageous characteristics are selected against Selection PressuresSection pressures core of natural selection For humans these are features of physical and social environment in which humans evolved that determined whether or not individuals survived and reproduced Hereditary elements that Darwin was ignorant of but we now know as genes are passed during reproduction2 kinds of sexual selection pressures determine who reproduces o Intrasexual competition within sex occurs within sex for access to mates In many species theres intense and struggle amongst males mostly Within this traits that allow some to prevail over others are more likely to be passed on to succeeding generations o Intersexual competition in opposite sex process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in other sex In humans this is seen in preference women report for males of higher status Males seek out mates who are fertile and of optimal reproductive ageEvolutionary theorists proposed that capacity to cooperate is powerful determinant of who reproduces and who survives AdaptationAdaptation genetically based traits that allow organism to respond well to specific selection pressures and to survive and reproduceWomen are particularly sensitive to bitter tastes and smells during first trimester of pregnancyPeople find symmetrical faces more attractiveImportant determinant of whether ones genes are passed on is survival of offspring in infancy o Evolutionary theorists argue that responses to baby like cues ensure that parents help offspring reach age of viability o Overwhelming love parents feel for offspring in response to baby like features overwhelms many costs of raising kids and increases chances that genes will be passed from one generation to nextNot all human traits or behaviours are adaptations o Many traits serve no apparent evolutionary function and are better thought of as byproducts o Shouldnt conclude that all or most traits emerged de novo to meet survival and reproduction related problems and opportunitiesHuman universal characteristics shared by all humansNatural selection based on genetic variation and selects for genetically based traits Emotions Serve FunctionsAt core of evolutionary analysis is functionhuman traits solve survival and reproduction related problems and help take advantage of opportunitiesMore typical to portray emotions as disruptive and harmful influences resulting in destructive behaviour to be mastered by rational thought
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