Textbook Notes (362,755)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYC18H3 (274)
G Cupchik (49)
Chapter 13

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University of Toronto Scarborough
G Cupchik

Chapter 13Emotions and Mental Health in Adulthood Psychiatric Disorders Symptoms and PrevalenceEmotional disorder when states reach levels at which person can no longer do ordinary things such as go to work or look after kidsDepression affective disorder Its intense sadness Its despair that can be painfully persecuting and drains all meaning from life o Davidson identifies diminution of pleasurable goal achievement as principal emotion component of depression o Depression is most frequently diagnosed in relation to criteria set out in APA DSMIVTR o Major depressive episode is diagnosed when for at least 2 weeks sufferer is unbearably sad or depressed or has lost pleasure in all activities along with being unable to sleep slowed down in actions lack of energy and inability to concentrate feelings of worthlessness and thoughts of suicideAnxiety come in several forms Overwhelming fears together with more protracted moods of disabling anxiety avoidance of what is especially feared and loss of personal confidence o When someone has nervous breakdown suffers major depressive episode with or without accompanying anxiety disorder o In an emotional disorder aspects of ones emotions tend to become difficult to understand than normal Psychiatric EpidemiologyPsychiatric epidemiology statistical study of how frequently disorders occurEpidemiologist detective who finds out why some people suffer disorders while others dontSome think modern medicine owes success to discovery of drugs like antibiotics and from advances like surgery without germs but with anestheticshistory shows infectious diseases were receding before innovations o Advances most important in improving health were epidemiological discoveries of how people caught infectious disease and reduction of infection by providing clean water Psychiatric epidemiology was slow to take place alongside epidemiology of physical medicine because it was first difficult to agree on criteria for diagnosis of disorders and because reliable psychological assessment o Kessler used research interview to make diagnoses according to DSMIIIR and determine risks in 48 statesRobins and Regier found that depression and anxiety states were twice as common in women as in menDepression recognized by WHO as single most important chronic condition in middle years of life in terms of economic impact and impairment of relationships o For Kessler women more likely 305 than men 19 to have had 1 of 5 kinds of anxiety disorder diagnosed in studyPrevalence percentage of people suffering from diagnosed disorder o Kesslerwith higher prevalence for women of depression and anxiety found that 35 of men but only half that percentage of women had disorder of alcohol or drug abuse o Men also higher prevalence 6 of antisocial personality disorder compared to women 1Gender differences occur in normal emotions Theyre small in comparison to gender differences in prevalence of disorders which continue trends seen in childhood where boys more likely than girls to show externalizing disorders and girls somewhat more likely than boys to have internalizing disorders o No gender difference in prevalence of depression in childhood in adolescence difference becomes large and stays soRobins and Reiger conducted the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study and showed patterns that were similar to those found by Kessler with some differences that depended on interviewsCultural factors play important part in emotional disorders o Tsai and ChentsovaDutton reviewed number of studies and found that prevalence of depression in West countries is higher than East o Patel found that in India Zimbabwe Chile and Brazil being female poor and having little education were associated with depression just like West industrialized societies Some differences in prevalence may reflect roles and resources open to people in different societies but other kinds of difference occur too o WHO studied depression in Switzerland Canada Japan and Irancore cluster of symptoms occurred in countriessadness joylessness anxiety and lack of energy o In Iran 57 of patients reported symptoms where 27 in Canada did
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