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Canada (158,372)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC18H3 (274)
G Cupchik (49)
Chapter 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
G Cupchik

Chapter 5Bodily Changes and EmotionUntil 1884 with William James most argued that experience of emotion follows perception of emotionallyexciting event and emotional experience generates emotion related bodily changesemotion originates in mind o James said origins of emotional experience is in body o James contended that emotionally exciting fact provokes bodily responses which lead to experience of emotion o Emotion is the perception of bodily changeso thesis is that bodily changes follow directly perception of exciting fact and that feeling of same changes as they occur is emotionIf took away physiological sensations like heart palpitations tensions warmth churning argued that be left with purely intellectual state emotion absentJames counterintuitive analysis points to 5 questions o Is there emotion specific activation in autonomic nervous system o Do bodily changes of heart rate breathing and like support specific kinds of action such as fight of flight o To what extent is experience of emotion based on activation of autonomic nervous system o Do bodily changes produce experience of emotion o Is bodily really primary organ of emotional experience Autonomic Nervous System cortexlimbic systemhypothalamus Neural signals from cortex communicate with limbic system and hypothalamusBrain regions send signals through clusters of neurons of autonomic nervous system to target organs glands muscles and blood vesselsStructures send signals back via autonomic nervous system to hypothalamus limbic system and cortexMost general function is to maintain internal condition of bodyParasympathetic branch helps with restorative processes reducing heart rate and blood pressure and increases digestive processesSympathetic branchincreases heart rate blood pressure cardiac output and shuts down digestive processes to help engage in physically demanding actionsANS maintains inner environment of body to enable individuals adaptive response to varying external environmental eventsdoes it in several ways o Controls processes like digestion body fluids blood flow and temperatureTwo branches originate in different parts of spinal cord and are controlled by different neurotransmittersParasympathetic and Sympathetic Branches outside bodyParasympathetic autonomic nervous system incorporates nerves that originate in 2 different parts of spinal cordvagus nerves at top of spinal cord and sacral region near bottom of spinal cordParasympathetic system decreases heart rate and blood pressureo In few places it facilitates blood flow by dilating certain arteriesincreases blood flow to erectile tissue in penis and clitoris essential to sexual response o Increases digestive processes by moving digested food through gastrointestinal tract o Constricts pupil and bronchioles o Stimulates secretion of variation fluids throughout body including those in digestive glands salivation and tearsSympathetic system has over dozen different neural pathways originating at several sites on spinal cod and acts opposite way from parasympathetic system o Increases heart rate blood pressure cardiac output o Produces vasoconstriction in most veins and arteries o Shuts down digestive processes o Associated with contractions in reproductive organs that are part of orgasm o Leads to contraction of piloerector muscleso Increases processes that provide energy for body including glycogenolysis and freeing of fatty acids o Reduces activity of natural killer cells o Helps prepare body for fight or flight responses
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