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Chapter 8

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Emotions Chapter 8Development of Emotions in ChildhoodThe Emergence of EmotionsAccording to MacLean 1993 vocal sounds during evolution were momentous They signaled the beginnings of a new kind of adaptation as mammallike reptiles started to become mammals and as social cooperation began to emerge among vertebratesEmotions in the first year of life Emotional development is social development Tomkins 1962each emotion comes as an innate package with its own neural programEmotional expressions then are outward and visible signs of inner programs As development proceeds specific emotions are expressed in forms that are recognizable to others Babies expressions have been appealing from a research perspective bc of the link to work on adult facial expressions Steiner et al 2001 have shown that the expressions that human infants make to sour tastes are similar to those of other primates Expressions of distinct emotions other than disgust are hard to distinguish in the first few days of life When babies are 2 months old adults are good at seeing expressions of happiness in their facesThere are two schemes for analyzing babies facial expressions o Izards MAX with its later modification AFFEXo Osters BabyFACS an adaptation for infants of Ekman and Friesens coding scheme for adult expressions FACSSocial smiles do not emerge until after the first month or two In the second month smiles begin to occur with gentle stroking and by the third month they occur frequently in interaction with a caregiver a situation that we can infer is associated with happiness When 3 months they smile in response to the same kinds of events that make older children and adults happyLewis Alessandri and Sullivan 1990 have shown that smiling occurs when infants master skillso They placed babies in an infant seat and attached a string to their armso For babiesm in one condition pulling the string turned on music Infants of 246 and 8 months soon learned that music starts when pulled string They showed higher levels of interest and smiling than those for whom the music came on irrespective of their string pulling One function of infants smiles is to make adults interested and happyo Malatesta and Haviland 1982 found that when infants showed interest in playing with their parents the parents expressions of interest also increased o Huebner and Izard 1988 showed pictures of infants facial expressions to mothers the mothers said the expression of positive emotion or of interest would make them feel good that they would talk play and interact with the baby and show loveo So even before that can direct expressions at people their smiles function to draw adults into affectionate interactions Researchers use Izards MAX coding system to code for anger sadness and pain distress in three month olds Oster et al have argued that babies negative expressions show only undifferentiated distress whereas Izard and Malatesta have argued that expressions of fear angry and sadness can be seen from early on In Lewis et al 1990 study where babies turned on music by pulling a string o Two month old babies in this condition showed more anger and fussiness when their string pulling no longer turned the music on than when they could turn the music ono Anger is what we would expect in response to frustrationwhat was seen More recent study using this technique babies arm actions turned on music and made a colored picture of a happy baby appear for 3 seconds Sullivan and Lewis 2003 studied three different kinds of frustration loss of the stimulation extinction reduction in contingent stimulation partial reinforcement and loss of stimulus control noncontingencyo For all these conditions 45 month old babies increased their arm movements and showed anger expressions but not sadness as coded by MAX Hiatt Campos and Emde 1979 tested the relation of emotional expressions to specific elicitors by presenting 1012 month old babies with 6 eliciting conditionso Hypothesis was that games and playing would elicit happiness confronting a cliff or seeing a stranger show fear object vanish would show surprise
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