Textbook Notes (363,550)
Canada (158,417)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC18H3 (274)
G Cupchik (49)
Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
G Cupchik

Chapter 1Approaches to Understanding Emotions th19 Century Founders3 theoristsDarwin James and Freud laid foundations for not just understanding emotions but whole fields respectively of evolutionary biology psych and psychotherapy DARWIN Evolutionary Approach 1872Darwin central figure of modern bio published most important book on emotions everExpression of Emotions in Man and Animals Origin of Species described how living things have evolved to be adapted to environmentsBegan writing notes on emotions in 1838 o At time accepted theory was God gave humans special facial muscles that allowed them to express uniquely human sentiments unknown to animalsCentral tenet of Darwin theory was that humans are descended from other speciesnot only closer to animals that thought but humans are animalsObserved emotional expressions in nonhuman species as well as adult and infant humansDeveloped new methods realizing importance of cross cultural study Was one of first to use questionnairessent set of printed questions to missionaries and others o Received 36 repliesWas one of first to use photographs of naturalistic and posed expressions to make scientific pointsIn book of emotions asked 2 questions that guide emotion research today o How are emotions expressed in humans and other animals o Where do our emotions come fromConcluded that emotional expression derive largely from habits that in evolutionary or individual past had once been usefulEmotional expressions showed continuity of adult human behavioural mechanisms with those of lower animals and with those of infancyThought emotional expressions were like vestigial parts of our bodies Darwin argued that sneering an expression in which we uncover teeth or one side is behavioural vestige of snarling and of preparing to biteTraced other expressions to infancycrying is vestige of screaming in infancy though in adulthood partly inhibitedo When adults cry still secrete tears but argued that tears no longer have protective functionSuggested that patterns of adult affection of taking those whom we love in our arms are based on patterns of parents hugging infantsEmotions link us to past both past of species and own infancy o In making argument he would shape contemporary study of emotions o Helped provide descriptions of facial expressionsArgued for universality of expressions and uncommon view at timeThought that emotions have useful functions too WILLIAM JAMESThe Bodily ApproachWrote The Principles of Psychology 1890 Argued against commonsense idea that when we feel emotion it impels us to certain kind of activitythat if we were to meet bear in woods feel frightened o James thought that when we perceive object of fear exciting fact then o emotionperception of changes of our body as we react to that factJamess theory is about nature of emotional experiencestressed way in which emotions move us bodilyCore of emotionpattern of bodily responsesVital point about embodied nature of emotion is captured in this idea of JamesJames stressed that experience of emotions is set of changes of autonomic nervous system that part of nervous system that supplies inner organsThought that changes from movements of muscles and joints were parts of felt bodily changes
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