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Chapter 8

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
Professor
G Cupchik
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC18 Chapter 8 – Development of Emotions in Childhood The emergence of emotions - first language of us all - Emotions in the first year of life o Emotional development is social development o Sets of primary emotions, Tomkins proposes that each emotion commes with innate package with own neural program o Expressions of distinct emotions other than disgust are hard to distinguish in first few days of life o Analyzing babies’ facial expressions: Izard’s MAX (later AFFEX) and Oster’s Baby-FACS o Smiles are not seen as social until at around three months (in response to events like attention, invitations to play and other pleasurable social encounters) o Lewis, Alessandri and Sullivan (1990) have also shown that smiling occurs when infants master skills (string pulling elicits music) o Baby smiles also elicit more smiles, interest and affection from caregivers o Discrete emotions should only be inferred if a specific facial expression is made in the context of an appropriate elicitor (pulling string no longer elicits music = frustrates baby)  Sullivan and Lewis studied three different kinds of frustration: los of the stimulation (extinction), reduction in contingent stimulation (partial reinforcement and loss of stimulus control (noncontingency)  Hiatt et al (1979) found that babies expressed happiness well, fear the least well (stimuli that was supposed to elicit fear elicited other expressions as well0 - Dynamic systems o Camras (1992) made video recordings of her daughter Justine’s facial expressions and found that eliciting cirucmstances do not seem to be compatible with the child’s emotional expression o Alan Fogel and group (Camras, Carlson, Sroufe, Egeland) and Lewis et al. have proposed that emotinos develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems. (idea that neurophysiological programs do not come genetically specified as ready-assembled packages. Formed by interaction among the components and by interaction of babies with other people) o Theory of dynamic systems is related to chaos theory (counters Butterfly effect). Chaos theory states that some systems (like weather) are self-organizing and that because the forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might interrupt, the butterfly’s wing flap would mean nothing o In a comparable way, dyanmic systems theorists of psychology say that the systems of components that have their expressions (smiles, frowns, etc) is not made up of billard-ball- like interactions of of parts. It is dynamic, self-orgniazing, resistant to disruption (dynamic systems theory does not make predictions but offers point of view in which behaviour does not occur in response to external causes but the inner organization of the system) o Fogel et al . (1992) propose that in interactions of systems with social world, further interdependcies occur. Hypothesis has three principles  A) Emotions are based on self-organizing dynamic systems  B) these depend on continuously evolving sequences of action in particular environments, rather than on internal programs  C) Categories of emotions are constructed from gradients of timing and intensity of vocal, gestural and other features  According to this proposal: emotions emerge and they derive from interactions of lower-level process that are not themselves emotions PSYC18 Chapter 8 – Development of Emotions in Childhood Developmental changes in elicitation of emotion - Scarr and Salapatek (1970) exposed infants to strangers, visual cliff, jack-in-the-box, a moving toy dog, loud noises and someone wearing a mask o Few children under seven months showed marked expressions of fear/distress to any of these stimuli o Age up to two years, children showed more fearful avoidance of visual cliff and more fear of strangers and masks o Preschoolers frightened by imaginary themes: monsters, ghosts, frightening dreams o Early school years: fears of bodily injury and physical danger o Adolescence: Social concerns Infants’ perceptions and parents’ special expressions - How infants perceive emotions in other people - Habituation: based on finding that infants look at patterns that are new to them for longer than pattersn that are familiar - Arlene Walker-Andrews (1997): Infants tend first to recognize emotional expressions from parents’ voices - Motherese: infants pay more attention to this special voice and show more positive emotion during it - Nakota and Trehub (2004): Infants more intrigued by mothers’ singing than talking - Chong et al. (2003) facial expressions of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking mothers. 3 most prominent: o Puckered lips making “oooh” o Mock surprise with raised eyebrows o Exaggerated smile accompained by raised brows - By seven months, babies can match facial and vocal expressions - Imitation: which babies show from first few hours of life has emotional effects. o Could occur because discrete neural programs of emotions which start up when any part is activated. o Coul also occur because making a particular expression contributes to a particular mode within a dynamic self-organizing system o Either case: means that babies’ imitative experssions are important in sharing affective states with caregivers Attachment - psychological aspect of the concept “mammal” (live-born and suckled by its mother) - John Bowlby first realized the species-characteristic pattern from World War II o Love is an emotion, but not just something in the mind or body of an individual. It is the foundational relationship of infancy and it forms a template for intemate relationships for the rest of life - Konrad Lorenz (1935) described instinctive pattern: baby goslings follow anything that moves around and makes sounds (imprinting). Critical period where it must recognize it’s mother. - Harlow and the two mothered monkey experiment: wire mother and mother made of cloth o Monkeys jumped to cloth mother regardless of whether it was the one who fed them - Kraemer: Effects of baby monkeys reared with artificial mothers suffered major damage o What is at issue in attachment is not just survival but building an inner model of interactions with another individual PSYC18 Chapter 8 – Development of Emotions in Childhood o Principal emotion of attachment is anxiety and a cry to a caregiver brings her close. Separation distress begins in second half of first year, reaches peak between 15 – 18 months then declines Cooperative action and the goal corrected partnership - In attachment: goal state for mother and baby is to be close to each other - Goal corrected partnership enables cooperation between two individuals that allows them to achieve mutual goals - Children are not aware of parents’ goals but with increasing cognitive maturity and repeated interactions, the child develops a model of the other person’s desires and intentions, allowing for a partnership Construction of the child’s relationship with others - Finely tuned interaction between mother and infant: motherese, nuzzles baby, baby fusses, mother withdraws, tries again - When a baby smiles, the parent very often mirrors the happy expression but in a different way (“ooh, that’s a nice smile~”)  Caregiver helps regulate arousal, by reading a baby’ssignals, keepin time with them and altering environment to maintain the best level of stimulation for the baby. Keeping in ti
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