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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 8 Development of Emotions in Childhood The emergence of emotions Emotions in the first year of life Emotional development is social development Emotional expressions are outward and visible signs of inner programs The faces infants make to disgust are similar to those of other primates Early smiles among infants are not usually social; social smiles do not usually emerge until one or two months month 2 a result of gentle stroking and month 3 from caregiver interaction 3 month old response is the same as the response in an adult (smiling) Infants smiles draw attention from adults Also found other emotions (anger, fear, sadness) among 3 month olds Dynamic systems Some researchers argue that infants negative emotions are only of undifferentiated distress but at different levels of intensity Most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, as anger, or as blends of discrete expressions Contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscles when making negative expressions Only difference between distress-pain and anger is that anger has eyes open Proposal that emotions develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems Neuropsychological programs do not come genetically specified as ready- assembled packages Such packages do occur, but they are constructed during early life from lower-level genetically derived components, which are formed into distinct structures by interaction among the components, and by interaction of babies with other people Idea of self-organizing system is that certain kinds of interactions among parts of a system maintain their relationship and overall form because the forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might impinge on the system from outside Componential theories of adult emotions: components occur together because they are elicited by features of the environment that occur together Developmental view: the components that will affect emotions do become neurophysiologically linked together, but do not start out that way Fogel (a) emotions are based on self-organizing dynamic systems; (b) these depend on continuously evolving sequences of action in particular environments, rather than on internal programs; (c) categories of emotions are constructed from gradients of timing and intensity of vocal, gestural, and other features Developmental changes in elicitation of emotion There are marked changes in the kinds of events that elicit emotions with increasing age Few children under 7 months showed marked expressions of feardistress for strangers, jack-in-the-box, loud noise, mask, toy dog, etc but with increasing age up to www.notesolution.com
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