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Chapter 7

Chapter 7,8,9,11

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Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18 Chapter 7 Split brain operation: sever the corpus callosum o Patients IQ, personality, language and ability to engage in meaningful interactions are not diminished Right hemisphere responds more readily to the emotional content of stimuli, while the left is more ready to interpret experience in terms of language Primary appraisal: unconscious, and automatic; reflexive Secondary appraisal: potentially conscious, and thought-like Appraisal and Emotion Historical background and definitions Chrysippus distinguished between initial movements that were automatic and and secondary movements which involved mental thought Stress produces vigilant attention and heightened activity in the sympathetic branch of the ANS Prolonged stress can lead to heart disease, cancer, and even cell death in the hippocampus Lazarus said that the differences between stresses lie in the emotions He proposed that appraisals involve judgements of how good or bad an event is Steins view holds that (1) an event, usually unexpected, is perceived that changes the status of a valued goal; (2) beliefs are often challenged; this can cause bodily changes and expressions to occur; (3) plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate or modify the goal, and the likely results of the plans are considered Automatic appraisals of good and bad Viewed either happy or angry faces. A suboptimal subliminal condition showed them for 4milliseconds. Subliminal had no idea whether they saw happy or angry. For suboptimally presented faces, smiling faces led participants to express greater liking for the Chinese ideographs. No such priming occurred for those who were aware of the faces Is the bad stronger than the good? Our negative evaluations appear to be more potent than our positive ones Appraisal theories and distinct emotions Discrete approaches to appraisals: emphasize that unique appraisals give rise to different emotions Dimensional approaches to appraisals: focus on the many components of appraisals that relate to different emotions Discrete approaches to appraisal According to Lazarus, primary involves appraisal of event in terms of its relevance to goals evaluate whether the event is relevant to personal goals or not, then they appraise ongoing events in terms of the extent to which the event is congruent or incongruent with the persons goals Goal congruent events elicit positive events, and goal incongruent events produce negative emotions www.notesolution.com Then the individual appraises the event in terms of its relevance to more specific goals, or issues for the ego Oatley believes that primary elicits a basic emotion and that each of the basic emotions has the function of setting the brain into a mode adapted to deal with a recurring situation not just of positive or negative but of a small number of basic emotions Each mode is a state of readiness with a distinct phenomenological tone, but no necessary verbal meaning Core relational theme: the essential meaning for each emotions; secondary appraisal Dimensional approaches to appraisal Ellsworth highlighted two reasons why we need to view appraisals from another perspective (1) similarities between emotions approaches to emotions as discrete, highlight the differences between emotions in terms of their eliciting appraisals, but certain emotions elicit similar feelings (2) inability to account for transitions between emotions Ellsworth has 8 dimensions of appraisal: attentions, anticipate effort, certainty, control-coping, legitimacy, pleasantness, perceived obstacle, responsibility Found that the combination of control and responsibility, called agency, was the critical dimension that differentiate three negative emotions: anger, sadness, and guilt Weiner and Graham found that some distinct emotions depend on attributions: the explanations of the causes of events that people give Critiques of appraisal research and new methods for studying appraisal Several critiques for the retrospective, self-report study of appraisal The evidence from studies like Ellsworth and Weiner are not causal they did not document how appraisals cause emotion The is reason to doubt whether the kinds of conscious assessments of appraisal that Smith and Ellsworth gathered actually correspond emotion Diary studies: people report on their daily emotional experiences in diary-like entries less subject to the biases of retrospective, self-report methods a second new approach is to identify appraisals as they occur, and ascertain whether emotion-specific appraisals relate to other measures of emotional response Cultural variation in appraisal Certain studies point to a surprising degree of universality in the elicitors of emotion Knowledge of emotion People have a powerful tendency to confide their emotional experiences in others called social sharing, and it occurs even for emotions such as guilt and shame Emotion words Emotion lexicon: an important component of emotion knowledge; vocabulary of emotion words Applying a label to an emotional experience helps identify the intentional object of an experience: what the emotion is specifically about www.notesolution.com
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