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PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9. Emotions in Social Relationships

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 9. Emotions in Social Relationships Sunday, April 17, 2011 3:10 PM The notion that humans are a mixture of good and evil, still accounts for human nature. This chapter considers the emotions that promote cooperation and aggression. Three kinds of social motivation: { Attachment functions primarily that of protection and care for the immature infant. Positive emotions: trust, comfort, and reassurance. Negative emotions: anxiety and distress. { Affiliation or affection, often described as warmth and contributes to parenting and draws individuals together even when they are not genetically related. Core of kindness, of friendship, and of romantic love. Positive emotions: affection, warmth, and liking. Negative emotions: sadness and grieving. { Assertion is the motivation to rise in social hierarchy, and to resist challenges from those who would diminish us. It is the motivation of competition, and of conflict. Positive emotion: anger, to win or maintain status. Negative emotion: shame or embarrassment. In terms of attachment, maternal sensitivity is importantly associated with infant security (they develop their sense of trust from parents being sensitive and responsive). { Other studies have found a dissociation between maternal sensitivity and attachment security. { However, this is not so simple. Theres the factor of affiliation, warmth, and affection. { Mothers in Uganda may be very responsive to their infants distress, but hugging and kissing is rare; the opposite occurs with mothers in America. { MacDonald and Goldberg hypothesized that the separate systems of attachment and affiliative warmth can be differently prioritized in different cultures. People express more emotions in communal relating (caring) as opposed to in terms of social exchange. Emotions are social in several different ways. { First, emotions are evaluations, or appraisals, of events that affect different kinds of social goals. { Second, emotions are not solely determined by appraisals
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