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Chapter 10

Chapter 10. Emotions and Cognition

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 10. Emotions and Cognition Sunday, April 17, 2011 8:08 PM Without a functioning orbitofrontal cortex and the information that an array of social emotions provide, people lack judgment and become no longer rational. { Magical transformation is when emotions influence our reasoning. What is the meaning of rationality? { First it has to do with whether the emotions are based on substantive beliefs. { Second concerns whether emotions help individuals function effectively in the social world. { Third is do emotions guide cognitive processes or do they disrupt them? Emotions as prioritizers of thoughts, goals, and actions. Emotions are a solution to a general problem: they set priorities among the many different goals that impinge upon individuals. In cognitive science era, emotions guide action in a world that is always imperfectly known, and can never be fully controlled. Oatley and Johnson-Laird proposed that emotions involve two different kinds of signaling in the nervous system. { One kind is a signal that occurs automatically and derives from primary appraisal. It is organizational because it rather simply sets the brain into a particular mode of organization, or readiness, along with an urge to act in line with this readiness, specific to the particular basic emotion. Such an emotion-related signal can have many sources, both inside body and outside. It is a quick, automatic, guess about the kind of thing to do next. { Second kind of signal derives from secondary appraisal. It is informational as it enables us to make mental models of the events and their possible causes and implications. Three perspectives on the effects of emotions on cognitive functioning. According to Gordon Bower, moods and emotions are associative networks in the mind. In memory, there are pathways devoted to each emotion, in which past experiences are all interconnected in a semantic network. { When you experience an emotion, all of the associations of that emotion become more accessible and available for use in different judgments. According to Bowers emotional congruence account, we better able to learn
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