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Chapter 11

Chapter 11. Individual Differences and Personality

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Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 11. Individual Differences and Personality Sunday, April 17, 2011 11:07 PM Although emotions have universal aspects, there are individual differences in emotion. Physical aggression is greatest between 24 to 42 months and declines steadily thereafter. Childrens ability to use language influences how they regulate their emotions. Mobility has an important effect; when infants begin to move, their need for an intense signaling system lessens. One view is that regulation starts with the modulation of the expression of emotion. { In children, this is initially fostered by the caregiver, and gradually becomes internalized by the child. Emotion regulation: individual differences in intensity, frequency, and duration of emotions. { Refers to the processes involved in modifying emotional reactions: the coping process that lessen or augment the intensity of experience. { Regulatory processes affect every stage of the emotion process: appraisal, evaluation, suppression of urges, as well as the selection and control of very kinds of expression and action. { It is essential to socialization. Children who were able to regulate their emotions were those who had experienced warm parental control. Children whose socialization were less successful achieved a self-regulated compliance with parents. { Suppression of emotion reduced rapport: emotional responsiveness is important for communication. In other words, successful regulation is not accomplished by suppression. Shifting attention and reappraisal are the keys, and are often accomplished by concentrating on what one is doing. Suppression is also less healthy. { Although responsiveness of the autonomic nervous system decreases with age, experiential changes in emotion do not decline as people get older (they just increase their skills of emotion regulation). { Dysregulation is when individuals cannot manage their emotions or accommodate to the current social situation. Stages of emotion regulation; failure at one stage has implications for subsequent stages. { First months - achieve stability in functioning.
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