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PSYC18H3 (274)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13. Emotions and Mental Health in Adulthood

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 13. Emotions and Mental Health in Adulthood Monday, April 18, 2011 8:42 PM Depression (or affective disorder) is intense sadness; a despair that can painfully persecute and drain all meaning from life. { Principal emotional component is the diminution of pleasurable goal achievement. Anxiety involves overwhelming fears together with more protracted moods of disabling anxiety, often avoidance of what is most feared, and often a loss of personal confidence. In an emotional disorder, aspects of ones emotions tend to become more difficult to understand than normal. Psychiatric epidemiology was slow to take its place alongside medical epidemiology mainly because it was at first difficult to agree on the criteria for diagnosis of the disorders, and reliable psychological assessments have not been developed. Although there are gender differences in normal emotions, they are small in comparison to those in the prevalence of disorders. { Women are much more likely than men to suffer from depression and anxiety. { Men has a higher prevalence of antisocial personality disorder than women. Cultural factors are important in emotional disorders. { Prevalence of depression in Western countries is far higher than in Eastern countries such as Taiwan or Korea. { However, being poor, begin female, and having little education were associated with depression across different societies. { Insomnia, loss of energy, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of suicide occurred in both Western and Asian countries. Other symptoms such as loss of appetite, feelings of worthlessness or guilt were not common to all countries. The evidence for differences in prevalence are correlational. Most usual form of depression is the depressive episode, or major depressive disorder. { Must have at least two weeks of either depressed mood or lack of pleasure in daily activities, plus four or more other symptoms. { Minor depression can be classified as having two to four symptoms in all. Bi-polar disorder or manic-depressive disorder is when depression is preceded or followed by at least one period of mania. { Mania is the disorder of happiness, exhilaration, and pride. Anxiety disorders take several forms. { They include unexpected panic attacks with sudden terror or dread; people have no idea why it occurs. { Phobias are almost irresistible urges to avoid certain places, thin
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