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Chapter 14

Chapter 14. Psychotherapy, Consciousness, and Well-being

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 14. Psychotherapy,Consciousness, and Well-being Tuesday, April 19, 2011 3:00 PM Human consciousness has struggled to find the right relation with emotions. Mindfulness has developed into a form of psychotherapy, with positive emotions by shifting activation to the left hemisphere. In Western therapy, the therapist tries to work with the client to make sense of emotion-based symptoms. { This contrasts the medical approach of trying to directly relieve the suffering and anguish of such symptoms. Freuds first form of psychotherapy focused on emotionally traumatic events in a patients earlier life. { Later, his idea was that neurotic people suffered from inner conflict, such as feeling both sexually attracted to someone and feeling inhibited by the prohibitions of society. { Most enduringly, Freud proposed a therapy of listening carefully, with respect, and with what he called evenly hovering attention, to patients who suffered from emotional disorders such as anxiety disorders and depression. There are now many different kinds of psychological therapy, and most therapists are eclectic in which they incorporate many different variants into their practice. Therapy is an interaction with another person in which, as patient or client, one can discover some of the properties of ones emotion schemas - and can to some extent change how these schemas operate. Three kinds of therapy: psychoanalysis, cognitive-behavioural therapy, emotion-focused therapy. Psychoanalysis: unconscious schemas of relating. Transference of the client to therapist is the distinctive feature of psychoanalytic therapy. { It is the manifestation of emotion schemas, mental models that embody ways of relating to others that have become habitual. { The term relational self refers to the beliefs and emotions of self-hood that derive from earlier relationships. Psychoanalytic therapy is designed to recognize transferences and to bring them into consciousness. { The idea of psychoanalytic therapy is that our relationships are so fundamental to every aspect of life, including our mental health, that if they are based on figures from the past rather than on real people in the present, there will be at best misunderstanding, and at worst intractable problems. { The idea is the interpretation of transference such that effects of emotional-relationa
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