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PSYC21H3 (41)
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
David Haley
Semester
Fall

Description
CH 9: Schools and the Media: Children in the Electronic Age Role of the School in social development  Kids spend more time in school then before  Primary purpose of school is to instruct kids in academic subjects but they also have another informal agenda= teaching rules, norms and values kids need to get along in society and helping them develop skills they need to interact with their peers  Kids learn about social expectation, emotional self regulation, and standards and codes of conduct  Schools are important contexts for socialization  Schools= social communities and kids dev a sense of community in their schools where teachers an dstaff shre goals and values and support eachothers efforts and believe that everyone makes an important contribution to the school life  Kids do better socially in schools that they have a strong sense of community with and have more +ve behavior toward school, prosocial behavior an dlower rates od disruptive behavior and less emotionally distressed and lower rates of violence and dropping out and drug use  Collective efficacy= the mechanism through which these positive effects of a sense of community are achieved= peoples shared belief in their collective power to achieve a goal or produce a desired result  Collective efficacy is a positive predictor of kids acamdeic performance in school  Drop out rates higher in big schools and so is reduced sense of identification  Extracurricular participation= high self esteem, better school attendance, higher achievement motivation, lower likelihood of drinking and using drugs, less pregos, less depression and less delinquent behavior and suicide  Schools within schools= could provide more behavior settings in which kids can dev sense of identity and belonging that might prevent them from dropping out  Self esteem drops, more social and academic problems, less involved in activities, feel less integrated in school= with middle school elementary and highschool organization  Kids feel more alienated, anonymous, etc  Transition to middle school is harder and challenge to younger students  Stage environmental fit= degree to which the environment supports a childs developmental needs= did not serve as one when kids go into middle school  No single age grouping system is ideal  kids who perceive that they have diminished control or importance are likely to feel more stress and depression than kids with more positive perceptions  Achievement and career aspirations higher in same gender school children less distracted by opp sex and they join classes that traditionally other sex does i..e engineering for girls and painting class enrollments for boys  Small classes beneficial for kids= teacher contacts child more and kids better behaved and interact more with peers, kids contribute more to class actitivites, kids less likely to be victimized, pay more attention, less antisocial behavior, more prosocial behavior, more positive emotional climate, more supporting environment, etc  Open classroom= unstructured organization in which diff areas of the room are devoted to particular activities and children work either alone or in small groups under the teachers supervision elemerntary kids get more social contacts, dev more positive attitudes toward school and show more self reliant and cooperative behavior in learning situations and highschool students show more participation in school acitivities and have more varied social relationships while having less disciplinary issues  Cooperative learning= a teaching technique in wich small groups of kids work together heterogenous group and no kid is singled out to be leader and goal is to maximizie the learning of all kids and create relationships among diverse children= increase self esteem, concern about peers and their willingness to help each other and show less ethnic conflict  Peer tutoring: a method of sintruction in which an older, more experienced student tutors a younger, less experienced child= tutors gain more= increase in self esteem and status and derive satisfaction from helping others  Green Box: Homeschooled Children o Chosen for religion, better learning environment, objections to what schools teach and belief that kids not being challenged enough o Homeschooled kids show less behavioral problems and they are better adjusted, happier, and more sociable than traditionally schoole peers o They had higher self perceptions in the asreas of academic achievement and socialization than schoold kids and they were more involved in civic affairs and voted more than twice as often and claimed to be happier o Homeschooling parents take advantage of social oppurtunities for kids and groups of homeschooling fams somteims come together to make homeschool coops that meet regularly so kids can interact with peers and form friensndships o Parents who choose this option are more educated and more motivated to promote heir kids education and social success  Teachers Impact: teachers play several roles in the classroom= instructor, social model, evaluator and disciplinarian  Quality of student –teacher relation is important to social and acadmic success  Affects cooperation, helpfulness, view of school, aggression, depression, engagement, social withdrawn, esteem, etc  Teacher student relation important for social adjustment of minority kids  Teachers tend to use more positive and less negative speech with white kids than with AA kids and they are more positive about misbehavior of white kids  Quality matters for minority group also because immigrant parents from a collectivist cultural orientation value personal relationships between teachers and students than do parents from the individualistic majority  Keeping control with classroom discipline and management are important and teachers spend a lot of time trying to manage unruly kids  They use operant conditioning principles and they are better for kids than having teachers yell at them or letting class go wild tangible reward use has downside= material rewards may undermine the teachers agenda and childrens progress and activities that are intrinsicially interesting to kids may lose their appeals if they are rewarded for doing them  Management type in which teacehrs support for kids for being helpful instead of punishing them for interfering with a classmates responsibility increases efficiency, task competition and classroom harmony  Impresisons about kids success also impact student and classroom performance i.e. Pygmalion effect= a phenomenon in which teachers ecpectations that students will do well are realized kids told as being bloomers became bloomers  Self fulfilling prophecy: positive or negative expectations that affect a persons behavior in a manner that he or she unknowingly creates situations in which those expectations are fulfilled  Children from low SES and minority groups generallyhave more hard time in school than white middle class kids due to set of cultural values and norms that are diff from the ones they experience at home  Diffs between poor and minority kids and middle class teachers can lead to misunderstandings  Parents and teachers share a concern about kids education although they don’t see eye to eye on kids behavior in the classroom its clear thay any program aimed at improving the school experience of poor and minority kids needs that teachers be exposed to multicultural values and ideas so they have a better understanding of the cultural background of their students  Green Box: Mathcing Classroom Organization to Cultural Values and Practices o School is a cultural setting and childrens success there dpends to a grea extent on the match between the classes social organization and the childs expectations o Awareness of kids cultural background is needed when teachers plan out their classroom activities o Researchers find that kids from Native American communities experience a clash between social rules of the classroom and the social rules and routines at home because at home they have high degree of autonomy and in class they are less willing to speak infront of the class when asked to by the teacher than are white kids o In traditional class, Hawaiin kids pay little attention to teacher and pay more attention to other kids which fitst with their cultural emphasis on cooperation and collaboration  When a parent is involved in childs school acitities and attend parent teacher conferences the kid tend to better both academically and socially  Parental involvement is more effective if it allows parents to communicate their expectations to teachers and show their children that they value education  School practices also influence parents involvement  Latino parents with lower education levels had interactions with school personnel that left them feeling inferior, embarrassed, helpless and embarrassed  Involvement of minority parents can be increased teachers communicate how rents can help their kids in school and parents communicate their goals, values, beleifs and practices  Teachers also can adopt to a more personal and informal style of interacting with the familiesnew classroom activities that demonstrate their understanding of families cultural values and increased the numb
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