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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
David Haley
Semester
Fall

Description
CH 11: Morality: knowing Right and Doing Good Moral Judgment  Piagets cognitive theory of Moral judgment: studied how kids attitudes towards rules in games changed as the kids got older and by examining the way children’s judgments of seriousness of transgressions changed with age  Stages of moral reasoning o Premoral stage: kids show little concern for rules o Moral realism: kids show great respect for rules and apply them quite inflexibly @5 years old o Moral absolutism: rigid application of rules to all individuals regardless of their culture or circumstance they ascribe to the notion of Immanent justice= the notion that any deviation from rules will inevitably result in punishment or retribution  they evaluate the seriousness of an immoral act solely in terms of its consequences, they don’t consider the perpetrators intentions o Mutual reciprocity: the third stage in which kids recognize that rules may be questioned and altered, consider the feelings and views of others and believe in equal justice for all @11 years old they realize obedience to authority isn’t always right and desirable and that violations to rules aren’t always wrong punishment should make up to the harm done  Findings in other cultures with respect to Piagets model have been less consistent  Piaget also underestimates kids capacities and abilities  Researchers have found that judgments about rightness and wrongness depend on both whether the consequences of actions are positive or negative and whether the consequences are intended or accidental  Kohlberg’s theory of moral judgment: believed that kids cognitive capabilities determine their level of moral reasoning and that moral development builds on concepts raised in the preceding stage  Levels and stages of Moral Judgement: studied moral dev by presenting a series of moral dilemma stories in which ppl had to choose either to obey rules and authority or to respond to the needs and welfare of others  3 broad levels of moral judgement, each subdivided into 2 stages  1) Preconventional morality: Justification of behavior is based on the desire to avoid punishment and gain rewards o Stage 1: Obedience and punishment orientation: to avoid punishment, kids defer to prestigious and powerful ppl, usually parents and the morality of the act is defined by its physical consequence o Stage 2: Naïve Hedonistic and instrumental orientation: children conform to gain rewards and they understand reciprocity but its manipulative not true generosity and compassion  2) Conventional Level: moral judgement is based on the motive to conform, either to get approval from others or to follow society’s rules and conventions o Stage 3: Good boy/girl morality: good behavior is designed to maintain approval and good relations with others they are concerned with other peoples approval and disapproval and they conform to the stadnards of other people and they accept others social regulations and judge nature of behavior in terms of persons intent to violate the rules o Stage 4: Authority and Morality that maintain social order: people blindly accept social conventions  they conform to the social order most ppl don’t pas this conventional leve of morality  3) Postconventional Morality: Self Accepted Moral Principles o Stage 5) Morality of contract, individual rights and democratically accepted law: peoples moral beliefs have a flexibility they lacked in earlier stages o Stage 6) Morality of Individual Principles and conscience: people conform to both social standards and internalized ideals intent is to avoid self condemnation rather than others criticism people base their decisions on principles like justice, compassion and equality  Sequences of the stages are fixed younger kids more level 1 and older kids more level 2 most ppl stop here  Stage 5 in young adulthood  Moral heroes: ppl who go beyond the call of duty and challenge us to do the right thing even at a cost  3 of these heroes served as models for Kohlbergs highest stages of moral dev= Lincoln, Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr  Limitations of Kohlbergs Theory: cultural differences have been found in the stagesPapa new Guinea focus on collectivsm, India focus on caste and religion and remaining pure and Kohlbergs emphasizes individual rights and obligations – underestimates moral dev in some other cultures and excluded some culturally unique domains of morality  History shapes peoples view of morality ppl who grow up in diff places have diff understandings of oral issues  Morality= social construction that evolves from experiences, institutions and deliberations of a community that is bound both by culture and historical era  Theory is also limited because its hypothetical moral dilemmas differ from real life dilemmas moral decision makrs involved in moral conflict which evokes strong emotions  People tend to make stage 3 or 4 moral judgements in response to impersonal philosophical dilemmas but lower stage judgements in response to more personal and life dilemmas  New aspects of moral development: Carol Gilligan expanded the moral domain to address gender issues and the dimension of caring females might take a more caring approach to oral dilemmas than males, who tent to emphasize individual rights and principles of justice  Boys responses emphasize logic and balance while girls focus on interpersonal stuff  Second revision of kohlbergs theory was the recognition that peoples moral reasoning may vary in diff situations  Kohlberg said that person applies the same level of moral reasoning to all moral issues= but ppl say that differentcontexts pull for different forms of moral judgement with development, ppl expand their range of moral reasoning and they way the process moral information depends on both their mental strcutures and the types of moral dilemmas they confront  third revision= expansion to include the area of civil rights and liberties as kids mature, their appreciation of the freedoms we take for granted increases  Kids also become better able to weigh conflicting issues such as restrictions on freedom of speech in diff gov systems  Green box: justice vs interpersonal obligations in India and the US o  More than 80% of Hindu children and adults in India endorse interpersonal considerations in judging moral dilemmas, as opposed to 1/3 in US o Indians were more than twice as likely as Americans to choose interpersonal responses and they tended to interpersonal responses as moral imperatives o Indians view helping others in moral terms no matter how minor the issue= feminine perspective  Turiels Social Domain Theory:morality is one of the several strands or domains of kids social knowledge, which also includes knowledge about social norms and conventions and concerns about privacy and personal choices  social conventional domain= area of social judgment focused on social expectations, norms and regularities that help facilitate smooth and efficient functioning in society  children of all ages consistently view moral violations as worse than violations of social conventions because moral violations result in harm to another person and violate norms of justice and fairness and as kids mature, they expand their notions of what harm is  in early childhood it is concrete and physical, in middle childhood harm results from unfairness defined in terms of inequality between persons, in middle childhood, harm results from unfairness defined in terms of inequality between persons, in preAD it results from failure to consider individual differences in needs and status and in AD It becomes more comprehensive an dis applied more consistently across diff moral issues  Psychological domain: an area of social judgment focused on beliefs and knowledge of self and others= domain of social knowledge that is separate from the moral and social conventional domains  Has different types of issues involved  Personal issues= only affect the self, prudential issues have immediate physical consequences for self and psychological issues involve beliefs and knowledge of self and others and choices about reviling aspects of the self ot others  In these areas, unlike the moral domain, individual choices are accepted  Prudential transgressions are not as bad as moral ones because they harm only the self, not others  Children also understand that diff ppl have diff psychological beliefs  kids realize that the beliefs of these people are diff but don’t think that they are wrong= they are tolerant of ppls diff religious beliefs too  Children are also open minded about personal issues such as friendship prefrences, hairstyle choices and clothing decisions these personal choices are an important part of defining themselves as different from others it is not surprising that as kids move into AD, they appeal to personal choice when they have conflict with parents  even in collectivist cultures, kids distinguish btwn personal choices and moral rules more as they mature  Moral considerations take priority over social conventional and personal ones  Conflict between rules in diff domains may led to ambiguities and uncertainties that cause people to subordinate morality to other concerns  Elementary kids use moral, social conventional and personal reasons to explain why exclusion is either right or wrong kids more likely to view exclusion as acceptable if it was a conventional reason or based on their low level of expertise in an acitivty, race , gender, relationship with other kids, etc  When faced with complex issues, kids apply a range of reasons drawn from different domains and make decisions based on their age and expeirnece young= make judgements about single domain issues more easily and consistently then judgements about complex issues How children learn the rules and distinguish between social domains  According to social domain theory, kids construct different forms of social knowledge based on diff types of experiences with other people  Parents and teachers roles in moral and social conventional reasoning:  Kids begin to understand right and wrong as early as 16 months of age and rapid increases in understanding between 2-3 years old  3 years old: kids can justify actions  older= moral judgement most effectively advanced if parents initiate discussions about other ppls feelings and use disciplinary techniques that involve reasoning and explanation and promote democratic family discussions  parenting strategies promote kids moral dev by stimulating them to think about their actions and the implications of their actions for the welfare of others and parental reasoning is most effective when it is clearly linked with the childs violation of a moral rule and when it highlights the consequences of the act for other persons moral rights  kis also learn during their fam interactions that breaking moral rules and social conventional rules lead to very diff consequences  moms tend to allow kids more choice and freedom regarding personal and social conventional issues than moral ones  domain appropriate reasoning is most affective  parents and teachers effectiveness also depends on how well the message fits the kids developmental level using verbal strategies, brief explanations, match cognitive capacity, etc  In AD, they still accept some parental regulation of social conventional and prudential matters, but are less likely to accept it when their parents try to regulate personal matters= reason for most conflict  AA kids reported when parents exerted some control of personal issues= AD had lower self esteem and more depression when parental control extended to mid or late AD  Authoritative parents are more likely to establish clear and legitimate boundries between moral, conventional and personal issues for their adolescents THEY treat their conventional transgressions as if they were moral transgressions and they treat personal issues as if they were socio conventional issues  Permissive parents treat all issues as personal  Siblings and peers also have an influence in helping kids learn moral and social conventional rules i.e. via disputes, exclusion, teasing, taunting, hurting each other= opportunities for learning these rules  Role of culture: children all over the world distinguish among three domains: moral, social conventional and psychological  content of social conventions varies dramatically across culture= meant to maintain social order
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