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CH 8.docx

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David Haley

CH 8: Peers: The Wider World of Social Development Developmental Patterns of Peer Interaction  Kids relaitons with peers differ from relations with adults  Peer relations are briefer, feer and more equal and more likely to involve shared psotiive emotions and conflict and offer kids oppurtunities for new types of interpersonal exploration, faciliatate growth of social competence and open the way for kids to form associations outside the family  Peer is another child of roughly the same age, friend is a peer with whom the child has a special relationship  Peers are a part of childs social world and they interact with the child interactions are short, don’t involve strong commitment and are limited to a specific context like classroom, they don’t involve reciprocal liking or mutual respect from these interactions, kids dev close relationships with small num of peers= friends  Friends interact on a regular and sustainted basis, develop expectations about future insteractions and engage in reciprocal actions such as sharing stories an dsecrets and supporting one anoter dyadic relationships with friends are characterized by reciprocal licking an ddiffer from relationships with other peers  Dyads= pairs of kids  Kids form groups of peers with defined boundaries and social organization= cliques, teams and crowds and these groups dev own norms, rules and hierarchies that regulate actiivites of other group members  Kids are active social partners from very early age  In first 6 months of infancy, babies touch and look at eahcother and are responsive to eachothers beahviors at second half of first year they begin to recognize a peer as asocial partner  Social exchanges between infants are shorter and less sustained because infants are less reliably responsive than adults  Between age 1-2, kids make gains in locomotion and language= increases complexity of their social exchanges they develop ability to engage in complementary social interactions and they can take and revrse roles in their play alternating them for example and also begin to imitate eachother and show awareness that they are being imitated  They are likely to smile or laugh during positive social interaction and as they grow older, kids prefer to interact with peers rather than adults  More than half the time kids participated actively and directed vocalizations, gestures and movements towards each of the other 2 kids in complex social exchanges  In late toddler/ 2-3 years, kids main social achievement is sharing meaning with a partner  This sharing of meaning makes it possible for kids to play a wider range of games and engage in pretend plauy together= make believe activity in which objects are used symbolically  Associative play= kids share toys, materials and sometimes conversation buy are not engaged in a joint projective  Cooperatve play= interaction in which kids ahre goals and work together to achive them  Parallel play: interaction in which very young kids are doing the same thing, often side by side but are not enagegd with eachother  Social play and conflicts go hand in hand and kids who frequently start conflict are the most sociable and most likely to start peer interactions  Onlooker behavior= kids who watch or converse with other kids engaged in play activities  Pretend play= Improtant for the dev of social competence in early childhood  Pretend play first appears about half way through second year  By age 3, kids pretend play is complex, cooperative and dramatic and kids share symbolic meanings in their pretend play  By 4, kids have lnger plays equences and can negotiate rules, roles and themes of pretend play more easil than 3 year olds  The pretend lay of 5 year olds= slow motion fist fignts, battles and prolonger, staggering deaths scenes with exaggerated and broad gestures also includes dressing up and acitng out complex rituals  Pretend play peaks @ 6 years old= highly coordinated fantasies, rapid transitions between many rules and unique transformations of objects and situations  From 1-12 years of age, kids spent more time with kid companions than with adults and hysical aggression towards peers decreases and generosity and helpfulness increase school years is all about being accepted by peers and fitting in with classmates  Importance of the peers age= becomes important factor and companionship with same age peer increases since they share interests and abilities  The importance of the peers gender: up to age 4 kids don’t care about gender and upto age 7 they are willing to play with peer of opposite sex—over elementary school, boys and girls chose playmates of same gender and excludes one of other gender  Gender segregation is obvious at school as boys and girls play diff games and use diff equipment  Girls like unstructured activities an have more intimate and exchange more info as boys tend to play high energy games  Boys and girls are competitive during play in groups than in dyads  In a mixed gender group, boys become less boisterous and girls more because kids adjust to preference play style of other sex playmates  High school kids spend 30% of their wang outs with peers during typical week, not counting class times  Adolescents usually engaged in recreation and conversations  Peers offer the perspective of equals who share abilities, goals and problems-> they are experts in whats cool and happening and they infleunce teens styles of interpersonal behavior, selection of friends and choice of fashion and entertainment and peers have a stronger influence if teens use weed, alcohol and drugs than parents do  Peer influence is great if parental support is low warm supporting and authoritative parents= kids less susceptible to peer pressure it also helps is peers friends are authoritative Peers as Socializers  In CH and AD, peers are important socializers who influence kids values and behaviors just as parents do  modeling behavior: peer influence each other by acting as social models in AD, young ppl copy peer models as they decide what to wear, how much to eat, when to start smoking, when to join a gang and if they should skip school  Reinforcing and punishing behavior: peers also influence each other in more deliberate ways (peer pressure), they tell kids how ot behave and reinforce them with praise and positive reactions for behaviors they approve of and punishment them with criticism and negative reactions for behaviors they dislike  Peers are more likely to reinforce each other as they get older  There is a great impact of peer pressure for kids to engage in antisocial behavior  Social comparison: the process by which ppl evaluate their own abilities, values and other wualities by comparing themselves with others, usually their peers high self esteem if they think they are as good as their peers, low esteem if they see themselves falling short = adaptive to compare themselves with peers  Children use social comparison as a way to evaluate themselves with increasing frequency in the early years of elementary school  Green Box: Peer Roles and Relationships in different cultures: Japanese youths spend less time with peers and their parent value play a more prominent role o Latino kids are more fam oriented and less influenced by peers o Italian kids more likely than Canadian kids to embrace debates and disputes with friends and as a result of their tolerance for conflict, they have stable friendshops o Kids in china, india and korea are more cooperative and compliant with peers than kids in US and Canada o Korean American preschoolers use more polite requests and statements of agreement and less frequently tell partners what to do or refuse peers suggestions than do European American kids= diff related to way Asian and American cultures view importance of individuals and society o In chinese culture, shyness and sensitivity are valued in kids and reflect accomplishment, maturity and understanding chinese kids accept peers with these characteristics whereas Canadian kids reject them Peer Status  Peers are important because they give kids a sense of acceptance or status in the world outside the fam  The most common way to study kids peer status is with sociometric techniques these techniques measure peer acceptance and rejection by assessing how much kids like or dislike eachother  Sociometric technique: procedure for determining a kids status within her or his peer group each child in the group nominates others whom she or he likes best and least or rates each kid in the groups for desirability as a companion and researcher sums up sore for each kid  Avg kids= have some friends but who are not as well liked as pop kids  Neglected kids= socially isolated and not necessarily disliked byt have frew friends  Controversial kids= liked and disliked by many  Rejected kids: not liked by many, liked by a few  Nominations method- quick and easy to admin but miss info about how kids feel toward most of their classmates  Can use raster and rating socimetric procedure in which they rate them on a point scale how much they like to play with them, work with them ,etc social acceptance is determined via avg rating rating scale measures of acceptance are better for detecting changes in acceptance when interventions are carried out  Can also asses peer sttus by fathering info about kids perceived popularity= ratings of how well child is liked by his or her peers, made by teachers, parents and kids  In CH, perceived popularity is associated to popularity assessed with sociometric technqiues, but in AD, the association is weak because for youth, popularity involves more things rather than simple preference like liking or disliking  Childrens status as popular, rejected or neglected depends on their behavior and cog social skills and on superficial favcors like childs name and physical appearance o Behaviors that make a difference: 2 types of popular include one who is friendly toward peers and well liked by them since they are assertive but not disruptive or aggressive, they are good communicators, help set rules for froup and engage in more prosocial behavior- other popular type is one in which there is a display of positive and negative behaviors= popular aggressive kids= athletic, arrogant, aggressive but at same time viewed as cool, and attractive and their social influence and actions and manipulative rather than prosocial o The popular aggressive phenomnenon shows the adaptive value of aggression o Popular aggressive kids show increased alchohol and secual acitivity over the yars of highschool o 2 types of rejected kids= aggressive rejected kids: have poor self control and show aggression and behavior problems and Nonagressive rejective kids= anxious, withdrawn and socially unskilled (social withdrawal is one of the strongest correlates of peer rejection in middle CH and AD o neglected kids whose peers ignore them but don’t reject them are shy, quiet and less aggressive o 2 types of negelected = socially reticient: kids who watch from afar and remain unoccupied in social company and hover near but don’t engage in the interaction and unsociable uninterested kids: are not anxious or fearful but refrain from social interactins because they prefer to play alone o Biological predispositions: temperamentally active, outgoing, impulisive and unfocused= temperaments are high extraversion surgency and poor effortful control rejected or neglected kids are withdrawn and temperamentally unsociable and smile less during interaction with moms (neither impulsive or inhibited temperements= popular kids_ o Kids also more accepted if they have the social knowledge and skill to ask acquaintances for information, offer info or invite other kids to join them in an actitivty= these kids are comfy in new social situations and want to interact with others and are confident and believe they have something to contribute and act interested in learning what others in the group are like o Kids need to communicate and understand others communications, interpret their behavior properly, formulate their own goals and strategies based on these interpretations, make proper decisions about how to act, communicate clearly to others and try out and then evaluate their own social strategies this model stresses the cog steps in evaluating social situations and how s kids progress through the steps in the model, they make decisions or take actions that are accurate or inaccurate, helpful or unhelpful o Researchers ound that socially incompetent kids are less likely to nitice and interpret cues properly, genertated fewer competent responses and chose less appropriate responses o Kids who were rated by their teachers or peers as being aggressive showed more deficits at each step of the social information processing model and responded in less competent ways when another child actually provoked them o Defecits in social understanding can lead to maladaptive b, poor interactions and redcued peer acceptance= deficts in social infor processing o Kids who were rejected by peers in kindergarten became less competent in social info processing by grades 2-3 o Children don’t always respond reflectively and thoughtfully their b can be impulsive or automatic= make many social decisions outside conscious awareness = quicker responses via these social habits and saves time and cog energy that would be used to deliberate amongst other alternatives o Step by step info processing approach is better for encounters in new or ambiguous situations than in familiar ones or with well known peers o Childrens goals in social interactions can affect their strategies in social situations= related to their peer status kids who wanna create or maintain social relationships are likely to use prosocial strategies and to be accepted by their peers kids who wanna dominate others may use coercive strategies and be rejected o Socially withdrawn kids pursie low cost social goals and use indirect strategies to initiate social interactions o Another factor that influences peer status is how they look adults attribute positive qualities to hotter people and kids do this t
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