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PSYC21H3 (41)
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Ch 12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
David Haley
Semester
Fall

Description
Ch 12: Aggression: Insult and Injury  The function of aggression may be reactive or proactive  Proactive aggression: behavior in which a person is hurt or injured by someone who is motivated by a desire to achieve a specific goal  Reactive aggression: a form of hostile behavior in response to an attack, threat or frustration, usually motivated by anger  Physical aggression: form of hostile behavior that inflicts physical damage or discomfort direct= pushing.kicking, indirect= vandalism, getting someone else to hit someone  Verbal aggression: words that inflict pain by telling, insulting, ridiculing, humiliating, etc direct= insulting person, indirect=gossiping, behind back, getting someone else to say something about another person  Social aggression: making verbal attacks or hurtful non verbal gestures such as rolling eyes, sticking out tongue, etc  Relational aggression: behavior that damages or destroys interpersonal relationships by means such as exclusion or gossip direct= excluding, threatening to stop liking someone, indirect=spreading rumors, lies, building alliance that exlucdes other person  Direct aggression: physical or verbal hostile behavior that directly targets another person  Indirect aggression: hostile behavior committed by an unidentified perpetrator that hurts another person by indirect means  AG can be maladaptive or adaptive  In early childhood, aggressive interchanges can teach young kids how to settle conflicts and disputes and promote their social cog growth  In middle CH, AG can be used as a way to attract peers and impress them with the agressors toughness  In AD= demonstration of AG prowess may be a key to maintaining membership or rising in the status hierarchy of a gang  Adaptive advantages may be mixed with maladaptive outcomes i..e gaining status with peers can lead to increases in deviant activities and increased contact with authorities including law enforcement  Aggression= multifaceted set of behaviors varying in form, function and adpativeness Patterns of Aggression  AG in infancy begins by the end of the first year, most often involves squabbles over toys and is therefore considered proactive or instrumental  AG here disputes are physical and direct  During the preschool period, proactive aggression continues to be more frequent than reactive or hostile aggression, but instances of aggression occur as well  Verbal aggression begins and become more frequent  Aggression outburst, tantrums and peer conflict and sibling battles peak at 2-3 they decrease after in physical aggression  Childrens increased abilities to regulate and control their actions and to delay gratification are linked to these decreses in aggression getting new strategies like distracting themselves from objects they want help kids reduce their impule to take toys or punch peers  Decline in physical aggression continues through elementary school at this age period, aggression hanges from predominantly proactive to reactive and instead of using aggression to gain or maintsian control over toys and territory, kids use it to settle interpersonal scores that arise from perceived threats and personal insults  During AD, physical aggression continues to decline in freuq for most children, verbal insults and taunts continue and more sophisticated forms of relational aggression are used i.e. forming cliques, and building coalitions increase for small minority of Adolescents, an increase in serious aggressive incidents occur  Peaking @ age 17-19= serious violent offenses occur Gender differences in Aggression  Few diffs in infancy, but at toddler age, boys more likely than girls to instigate and to be involved in direct, physical aggressive incidents and overt verbal attacks  Even among 3-5 year old males more physically aggressive than females  Rates of nonphysical antisocial behavior including lying, cheating and stealing were higher for boys than for girls ina s tufy of kids in the US and 12 other countries  Boys are also about twice as likely as girls to violate the rights of other and break age appropriate social norms and rles and they are more likely than girls to retaliate after being attacked  Boys are more likely o attack other boys that girls  Girls are ore likely than boys to disapprove of aggression and to anticipate parental disapproval for acting aggressively and are more likely to use strategies such as verbal objection and negotiation to resolve their conflicts, methods that make the escalation of a quarrel into overt or physical aggression less likely  Girls do unsophisticated forms of relational aggression like excluding ndirnoring more often than they use direct verbal or physical aggression in the elementary school years, girls increase their use of relational aggression by damaging or destroying interpersonal relationships  They may also exclude other girls, besmirch their reputation or gossip about their negative qualities  In middle school= harm others by social ostracism  Girls use relational aggression more often than physical of verbal aggression, they don’t use it more than boys  Reducing other girls social status may also be away for girls to fain the advantage in attracting boys= important concept in terms of evolutionary theory  Relational aggression is a more socially acceptale for girls to be mean= more lady like  Relational aggression may not be as obvious as physical aggression, but kids still know that it hurts  Preschool kids think that relational and physical aggression are equally harmful and likely to make a person feel sad older girls continue to view relational aggression as just as hurtful as physical aggression, but boys having been on the receiving end of more punches, think that physical aggression hurts more  Kids who engage in relational aggression are more likely to be rejected by their peers than kids who don’t Stability of individual differences in aggression  Aggression is stbale over time for boys and girls  aggressiveness is as astbale as intelligence and both physical and relational aggression are stable, physical is especially stable  only a small % of kids are very aggressive in early childhood and maintain a high level for entire life  early starters: kids who start to behave aggressively at a young age and often remain aggressive through childhood and AD  kids who remained aggressive from toddlerhood to to 3 grade showed most severe adjustment problems at age 12 ocmpared with kids who either remained low in aggression or decreased in aggression also show high levels of phsycial aggression and delinquency in AD  late startersL children who begin to act aggressively in AD and tend not to continue their aggressive behavior in adulthood late starters avoided social rejection and school failure that plagued early starters and this may have protected them  almost all kids who began their aggressiveness early were boys  violent road rage and abuse of spouse or kids= forms of aggression that are unique to adulthood  overall rates of aggression in adulthood decline in early childhood  adults are expected to rely less on physical force and more on nonconfrotnational methods for settling their disputes  overall some ppl are more likely than others to continue their aggressive ways= earlys tarters  highly aggressive @ 8= more likely to abuse fam, DUI, traffic ticket, criminal activities etc in adulthood  anger issues @ 8= erratic jobs, divorced more likely, lower jobs that parents, etc  girls with temper issues married men with low occupational mogility, less competent, ill tempered moms, more likely to be divorced  2 factors protect against a life long pattern of aggression= stable marriage and employment Causes of Aggression Biological Origins of Aggressive Behavior  aggression genetically determined via identical twin studies  moderate association between generics and antisocial behavior antisocial behavior of early starters is more heritable than that
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