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PSYC21H3 (41)

week 7-12 readings.docx

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David Haley

Chapter 6: Self and Other: Getting to know me, getting to know you The sense of self - Individual self: aspects of the self that make a person unique and separate from others - Relational self: aspects of the self that involve connection to other ppl and develop out of interactions with others - Collective self: a person’s concept of self within a grp such as a grp based on race or gender - Developmental origins of self-concept  Rouge test to test self recognition  Children under 1 act as if some other child is behind the mirror  during 2 year of life almost all children exhibit self recognition  Children have trouble remembering past self image until they are about 4 yrs of age  Susan Harter: 3 stages in the development of self-descriptions in childhood and 3 stages in adolescence  3-4: describe themselves in terms of observable physical features, preferences, possessions, social characteristics  5-7: describe themselves in terms of their competencies, beginning to compartmentalize concepts but none that are opposite such as good and bad  8-10: more aware of their private selves and their unique feelings and thoughts and begin to describe themselves in more complex terms  use labels on abilities, and interpersonal attributes  Beginning at 11: describe themselves in terms of social relationships, personality traits and other general settable psychological characteristics  describe in abstract terms such as intelligence but abstractions are still compartmentalized  Mid adolescence: introspective and preoccupied with what others think; multiple me’s crowd the landscape  Lat adolescence: self descriptions emphasize personal beliefs, values, moral standards, think about future and possible selves - Difficulty developing a sense of self: Autistic children  Affects ability to develop sense of self  Delays or deficits in self-recognition  Little emotional response Self-perceptions - Global self-esteem  Self esteem: evaluative component of self that taps how positively or negatively ppl view themselves in relation to others  Children with high self esteem view themselves as competent and capable and pleased with who they are  Children with low self esteem view themselves as inadequate and inferior to others  Self esteem fosters experimentation that can increase eary sexual activity and drinking - Domain specific perceptions  In areas of scholastics, athletics and appearance  Hater developed method for assessing both global self-esteem and self-persceptions  Children rate themselves on global self worth and 5 domains (scholastic, athletic, appearance, behavioural conduct, social acceptance) - Learning self-appraisal  Not very accurate or realistic  Young children, their self perceptions may reflect what they want to be rather than who they are  With development and history of feedback from others children becomes more realistic in their self-appraisals  View themselves as better in some domains then in others - Gender variations in global self esteem  Girls have lower global self esteem than boys and evident in adolescence  Why differences  Boys are more dominant and assertive than girls  Resources still favour boys  Clear link between children’s ratings of their appearance and their overall self-esteem - Social determinants of self-esteem  Family influences  Adolescent girls with affectionate mothers had higher self esteem and adolescent boys whose mothers were more psychologically controlling, intrusive and manipulative had lower self esteem  Adolescents whose parents were authoritative had higher self esteem than adolescents whose parents with authoritarian  Influence of peers and mentors  Influences on their peers  Peers important for promoting adolescents self perceptions in the domains of physical appearance, popularity, athletic competence  Praising children and boosting self esteem  Research shows that praising children does not help them succeed; it sets them up for disappointment  Better to foster a growth mind-set that they can develop their abilities through effort Identity formation - Identity: definition of oneself as a discrete, separate entity - Erikson and identity confusion - James Marcia described a period during which adolescents experience a crisis of decision making when alternative identities are explores, options tried and new ways of being are imagined  Identity achievement associated with several positive outcomes, including high self esteem, cognitive flexibility, mature moral reasoning, clear goal setting and better goal achievement  Some adolescents – foreclose grp- remain committed to childhood values and beliefs and do not use adolescence as a period to explore other potential identities  more authoritarian, inflexible and more susceptible to extreme ideologies and movements  Moratorium: reached a plateau and are still in the process of identity formation  tend to be anxious and intense and have strained or ambivalent relationships with their parents + other authority figures  Diffused identity: neither engage in exploration nor are concerned about committing themselves to a particular identity (take life as it happens)  least mature, abuse drugs, delinquents, depressed, lonely - Individuals can shift between levels and are likely when achievement of identity early on occurs - Influences of identity formation  biological changes, puberty, awareness of self as sexual being emerges, changes in cognitive functioning , advances in cognitive development - Ethnic identity  Ethnic identity: recognition of being a member of a particular race or ethnic grp  Development of ethnic identity  Emerges gradually over childhood and adolescence  Babies look longer at faces of their own race  Preschool children continue to show they they are aware of cues to race and ethnicity and prefer to play with those in same grp  Minority grp children reach this awareness and preference earlier than other children  Most active period of ethnic identity development is adolescence  Minority students benefit from embracing ethnicity and forming positive ethnic identity without disparaging the majority culture  less likely to become delinquents, do better in school, experience less depression and have more positive attitudes toward other ethnic grps  Biracial and bicultural children and youth  Scarr o Black children adopted in white families found that nearly half of the sample at age 17 exhibited symptoms of social maladjustment  Adolescences who adopt a marginal identity in which the adolescent is not strongly identified with either majority or minority are decultured  Factors that promote ethnic identity  Parents play important role  Serves a protective function and makes children more resilient in the face of prejudice  parents who do not socialize children leave them vulnerable and unprepared for discrimination  Peers become socializing force and sharper of ethnic identity  Adolescents who have more contact and friendships with others in their own ethnic grp have more stable ethnic identities than adolescents with few same race friends  Adolescents with more extensive contact with members of other ethnic grps in school tend to develop more mature ethnic identities and more favourable attitudes toward ppl or other ethnicities Development of knowledge about others - Early understanding of intentions and norms  Ppl action intentional and goal directed  Script: mental representation of an event or situation of daily life including the order in which thing are expected to happen and how one school behave in that event or situation - Later understanding of mental states: Theory of mind  Theory of mind: children’s understanding that ppl have mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and desires that affect their behaviour  allows children to get beyond ppls observable actions and appearances and respond to their unseen states  Children with autism show delays or deficits in theory of mind because they do not understand that mental states can cause behaviour or that other ppls mental states may be difference from their own and therefore unable to evaluate other ppl behaviour on the basis of their mental states  Developing theory of mind important step toward social competence - Understanding psychological trait labels  4 yrs olds can use trait labels to infer how ppl would react in an event; however understanding of trait labels is incomplete at this age  5-7 yr olds children recognize that ppl have psychological or personality attributes that distinguish them from each other and that these qualities are stable enough to predict how ppl will act differently in situations  9-10 yr olds describe another person’s actions less in terms of good or bad and more in terms of stable psychological traits such as being selfless, generous, stingy or selfish  Adolescence heralds a more complete understanding of other ppls traits  ppl full of complexities and contradictions and have public and rivate faces - Stages in perspective taking  Robert Selman identified 5 stages in understanding the thought and perspectives of other ppl 1. Egocentric perspective 2. Differentiated perspective 3. Reciprocal perspective 4. Mutual perspective 5. Societal or in-depth perspective - Advancing social understanding  Child ab
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