Textbook Notes (367,752)
Canada (161,368)
Psychology (9,685)
PSYC21H3 (41)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

Carly Prusky

Social Development Chapter 1 – Introduction: Theories of Social Development Social Development: A Brief History - Medieval period – children viewed as mini adults, childhood was not seen as a distinctive period - Many children died in infancy and early childhood, those that survived, worked in mines - 1800s – child labour laws were introduced to protect children‟s health and welfare - Charles Darwin – pioneered work that began the scientific study of child development o Paved the way for the modern study of emotions - G. Stanley Hall – used questionnaires to document children‟s activities, feelings and attitudes - John Watson – conditioning and learning were the processes by which social and emotional behaviour are acquired and modified - Sigmund Freud – social development was the product of how adult‟s handled children‟s basic drives - Arnold Gesell – social skills unfold over the course of infancy and childhood Critical Questions about Social Development - 1. How do biological and environment influences affect social development? o Nature – heredity and maturation  Biology is destiny  Development is largely predetermined by genetic factors, guiding the natural maturation/unfolding of social skills and abilities o Nuture – learning and experience  Environments can shape development despite genetics  By properly organizing an environment, a child can be brought up to be a particular way o Modern view – both biological and environment factors influence social development o Children‟s aggressiveness is a function of testosterone level and exposure to aggressive interactions o Children‟s sociability with peers is rooted in temperament characteristics and early family experiences o How is a biological characteristic‟s expression shaped by environmental circumstances? - 2. What role do children play in their own development? o Early views – children were passive elements shaped by external forces o Modern views – children are active agents who shape, control and direct the course of their own development o Children are curious seekers of information who try to understand and explore the world around them o They actively modify the actions of the people they encounter o Transactional interchanges – between social partners, results in modifications of the social behaviour of each, such as parent and child o Child social behaviour is constantly changing - 3. What is the appropriate unit for studying social development? o Social dyads – a pair of social partners o In the past, the individual child was the unit of study, but modern research looks at the nature of social interactions and exchanges between pairs and looks at the social relationship between the individuals o Social triads and social groups that children form outside of their family are also considered o Modern research looks at the individual, dyads, triads and groups - 4. Is development continuous or discontinuous? o Continuous process – each change building on earlier experiences in an orderly way, smooth and gradual development, no abrupt shifts o Discontinuous process – series of discrete steps, behaviour is qualitatively different at each new stage, as well as the stage itself o Piaget, Freud – children move through different stages, at each stage, they learn new strategies for understanding and acquiring knowledge, which displace earlier strategies o If we look at development over a long period of time, differences are evident, suggesting different developmental stages o Looking more closely, changes do not happen suddenly and there is great variability to social behaviours at the same point in time o Over time, changes proceed in a less linear and less step-like fashion than continuous theories suggest o Modern view – development is basically continuous but interspersed with transitional periods where changes are abrupt o Transitional periods can be the result of physical change, cultural change, etc., and are opportunities for changes in development - 5. Is social behaviour the result of the situation or the child? o Both “person factors” and “situation factors” contribute o Children seek out situations in which they can display their personalities o i.e. an aggressive child may be more likely to enroll in a karate class, but in settings that don‟t promote aggression, the child may be friendly and cooperative o Genetic predispositions lead children to “niche-pick” situations that are compatible with their genetic makeup - 6. Is social development universal across cultures? o Different cultures have different experiences o Different racial and ethnic groups present children with diverse experiences o Differing importance is ascribed to culture  A. laws of development apply to all children in all cultures  B. cultural settings play a major role in development  C. some aspects of social development are universal and others are attributable to culture o Modern views recognize universal aspects of development and the importance of cultural contexts - Cultural Context: Parenting Advice Around the Globe o Different cultures make different assumptions about appropriate or desirable characteristics of children and appropriate or desirable behaviours of parents o North American culture stresses the uniqueness and independence of individuals  We value autonomy, assertiveness, ambition, and competitiveness in children o All cultures aim to protect and keep their children safe o Many non-Western cultures value interdependence, modesty, and self-effacememt o In many non-Western societies, members of the wider community participate in child care because they value shared responsibility for child rearing  E.g. in Ifaluk, more than one third of children are adopted by a second family, receiving shelter, protection and security from both sets of parents o Parents in non-Western cultures base their practices on tradition and observation, not on books - 7. How does social development vary across historical eras? o Cultures differ from themselves over time o Changes in family structure and means of communication affect development – i.e. family size, working/stay-at-home mom, use of computers o Historical changes play a part in shaping children‟s development o Wars, natural disasters, and other historic events affect social lives of children and their families o Distinct events and gradual shifts leave their mark on social and emotional development - Children of the Great Depression o Economically-deprived families – dramatic changes in family roles and relationships occurred  Mothers entered the workforce – mother‟s power increased, father‟s power decreased  Rates of divorce rose  Fathers became more punitive and less supportive of their children  Girls were required to do more housework, older boys had to take outside jobs  Boys and girls became moodier, less calm  Effects of the depression were greater for children who were young at the time and were long lasting, marking their later values, work patterns and marriages - 8. Is social development related to other development domains? o Darwin – emotions play a central role in regulating children‟s social interactions o Children‟s cognitive capacity to correctly interpret another person‟s intentions is critical to social interaction o Emotional, language, motor development are important for social development o Advances in other domains of development facilitate changes in social development - 9. How important are mothers for children’s social development? o While mothers may be the most important people for children‟s early social development, other people are important as well o Fathers, siblings, grandparents, and other relatives also influence a child‟s social development - 10. Is there a single pathway of social development? o There are varied routes of development o Multifinality – the divergence of developmental paths in which two individuals starts out similarly but end at very different points  Continuing patterns of transactions between children and their families affect the children‟s development o Equifinality – the convergence of developmental paths in which children follow very different paths to reach the same/a similar developmental end point o Individual children respond to their life circumstances in very different ways o Adverse circumstances can lead to permanent developmental disruptions or delays, “sleeper effects”, where children seem to be coping well but exhibit problems later, or resilience (under the most difficult circumstances) o Some children may thrive on risk and when they encounter risks later in life, they adapt to challenges better than those who experienced little to no risk  They have been “inoculated” by early experiences - 11. What influences how we judge children’s social behaviour? o How we judge or label someone‟s behaviour affects how we respond to it o Characteristics of the child, the adult, and the context can influence social judgements and the labelling of social behaviours o More likely to judge or label a behaviour negatively if it occurs in boys, in children who have temperament difficulties, in unattractive children, and in children from lower-status families o More likely to judge a behaviour negatively if it occurs in a more strict and demanding context (i.e. a park vs. a classroom) - 12. Do developmental psychologists “own” social development? o Scholars in other fields such as pediatrics, psychiatry, anthropology, economics, law and history also contribute to children‟s social development o Anthropologists – document cross-cultural variations in children‟s social lives o Economists – address the effects of poverty on children and families o Legal scholars – study moral behaviour Theoretical Perspectives on Social Development - Theories organize and integrate existing information into coherent and interesting accounts of development and lead to testable hypotheses and predictions about behaviour - Psychodynamic Perspective o TABLE 1.2 o Freud’s Theory  Psychodynamic theory of development – psychological growth is governed by unconscious biologically based drives and instincts (sex, hunger, aggression) and is shaped by encounters with the environment  Parts of the personality  Id – infants are largely controlled by their id, operates on the pleasure principle, works to maximize pleasure and satisfy needs immediately  Ego – rational, tries to gratify needs through appropriate, socially constructive behaviour  Superego – appears when child internalizes (accepts and absorbs) parental or societal morals, values, and roles and develops a conscience (ability to apply moral values to own acts)  Development is a discontinuous process, organized in 5 discrete stages  Oral stage – infants are preoccupied with activities involving the mouth (i.e. sucking, eating, etc.) from which they derive enjoyment and satisfaction  Anal stage – children are forced to learn to postpone the pleasure of expelling feces (toilet training age)  Phallic stage – sexual curiosity is aroused, pleasures of genital stimulation alert them to differences in female and male sexual anatomy  Oedipus complex – during the phallic stage, boys become attracted to their mothers, are jealous of their fathers, but also fear that their fathers will punish them by cutting off their genitals, resolved when boys begin to identify with their fathers  Electra complex – girls blame their mothers for their lack of penis, focus their sexual feelings on their father (who has a penis they supposedly want), realize they cannot possess their fathers and transfer feelings to other males  Latency period – sexual drives are temporarily submerged, children become intensely involved with peers of the same sex (age 6-puberty)  Focus on peer group is related to the acquisition of social skills necessary to function effectively in the world  Genital period – sexual desires reemerge, but more appropriately directed towards peers o Erikson’s Theory  Placed more emphasis on the effects of the social environment on development  Psychosocial theory – based on the belief that development is discontinuous and process through a series of stages that extend into adulthood  Stage 1 – infancy: main task is to acquire basic trust; learning to trust their environment and themselves  Untrustworthy others leads to mistrust of themselves and the world  Stage 2 – early childhood: main task is to learn self-control and develop autonomy  Develop shame and self-doubt if they worry about not living up to expectations  Stage 3 – play age: develop initiative and master their environment  Feel guilty if they are too aggressive or too daring  Stage 4 – school age: develop a sense of industry (by succeeding at school)  May feel inferior if fail at school or at social tasks  Stage 5 – adolescence: search for self-identity  May have confusion of role if they cannot determine who or what they want to be  Stage 6 – young adulthood: achieve intimacy with others  A shaky sense of identity may lead to avoidance of relationships  Stage 7 – adulthood: to express oneself through generativity (a desire to nurture and guide younger people and contribute to the next generation)  Lack of generativity can lead to stagnation  Stage 8 – mature age: achievement of ego integrity  Doubts and regret of the past may lead to despair o Psychodynamic Perspective: An Evaluation  Freud and Erikson‟s theories address the effects of early experience on later behaviour, the influence of family on social behaviour, and the impact of social interaction on development.  Freud‟s claims are difficult to test empirically and his information was gathered from adults undergoing therapy, not children behaving socially  Also used potentially biased methods of collecting information  Focus on childhood sexuality was too narrow and too exaggerated for a solid base of a developmental theory  Erikson‟s observations are open to alternative interpretations and his conclusions are not easily verified  Limited specification of mechanisms that account for development from one stage to another - Into Adulthood: Fatherhood and Generativity o Generativity – any creative activity that contributes to the positive advancement and encouragement of future generations (ideas, literature, products, children) o Biological generativity – birth of biological children o Parental generativity – rearing of children o Societal generativity – care for younger adults (i.e. coaching a team) o Men who experienced biological generativity were more societally generative at midlife than childless men o Parentally generative men had better marriages and more occupational mobility o Experience of parenting reduces a focus on the self and stimulates generative actions on behalf of others - Traditional Learning Theory Perspective o Classical and Operant Conditioning  Development is continuous, directed by events in the environment, where children play a passive role  Classical conditioning – learning where a new stimulus is repeatedly presented with a familiar stimulus until an individual learns to respond to the new stimulus in the same way as the familiar stimulus  E.g. Pavlov‟s dog salivating to the sound of a bell after bein
More Less

Related notes for PSYC21H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.