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Chapter 8

PSYC21 Final Chapters 8, 9, 11, 12 & 14.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
Andre Sorensen
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 8- Peers: The Wider World of Societal Development - peer: another child the same age ( short, no commitment, and limited to specific context such as classroom. Maybe one sided because did not involve reciprocal liking or mutual respect) - friend: peer with whom the child has special relationship ( interact on regular basis, develop expectations about future interactions and engage in reciprocal actions like sharing stories, secrets. Dyadic relationships with friends characterized by reciprocal liking and differ from relationships with other peers) - groups develop their own norms, rules and hierarchies that regulate the activities of the group members Developmental patterns of peer interaction - First encounters in infancy o first 6 months of life babies touch and look at each other and responsive to each other’s behaviour o but these early behaviours can’t be considered social in the sense that an infant seeks and expects a response from another baby o not until second half of the 1 year that infants begin to recognize a peer as social partner o between 6-12 months infants start trying to interact with other infants by vocalizing, waving and touching o infants exchanges are shorter and less sustained because infants are less reliably responsive than adults o more equal because adults take the lead in maintaining interactions with infants - Social exchanges between toddlers o between ages 1-2 kids make gains in locomotion and language and this increases complexity of their social exchanges o develop ability to engage in complementary social interactions ( take turns and reverse roles in their play such as hider and seeker) o begin to imitate and recognize they are being imitated o interactions last longer o as they get older they prefer to interact with peers rather than adults o kids of this age spend time in groups o 2 yr olds in groups of 3’s, mostly all kids participated actively and directed vocalizations, gestures and movements toward each of the other two kids in complex social exchanges o 2-3 yrs. kids main social achievement is sharing meaning with partner o suggests certain activity by looking at their partner and then signal to switch roles and communicate shared knowledge through smiling at each other as their dolls change hands o this sharing of meaning makes it possible for kids to play a wider range of games and engage in pretend play - pretend play: symbolic objects used to play make believe - associative play: interaction in which young kids share toys, materials and convos. but are not engaged in joint project - cooperative play: interaction where kids share goals and work together to achieve - parallel play: interaction in which very young kids are doing the same thing, side by side, but are not engaged with each other. Peer play in early childhood - kids in ages 3-5 years old engage in different types of play depending on circumstances but when they get older they increasingly likely to play together in more complex and social ways reflected in associative play and cooperative play and decreasingly likely to just watch or play alongside each other in parallel play - negative exchanges + conflicts increase over preschool years - you kids that frequently initiate conflicts with peers most sociable and most likely to initiate peer interaction table 8.2- Types of play in preschool age kids o onlooker behaviour: half of 2 yr old kids engage in this type of play. Kids watch or converse with other kids engaged in play activities o parallel play: behaviour common in 2 yr olds but diminished by the time a kid is 3 or 4. Kids play in similar activity, side by side not engage in other another o associate play: 3-4 yrs old. Kids play with other kids but do not always share the same goal. Share toys and material and even react or comment on kids activities. But still not fully engaged with each other in joint project o cooperative play: 3-4 years old. Kids engage in play in which they cooperate, reciprocate, and share common goals. Such as drawing, playing fantasy games and interact with each other - pretend play is important to development of social competence in early childhood - lets kids experience roles and feelings of others in playful context and teaches them to function as part of social group and coordinate their activities with other kids - by age 3 kids pretend play is complex, cooperative and dramatic (share symbolic meanings in their pretend play) - 4 years old they have longer play sequences + negotiate roles, rules and themes of pretend play - age 5 they have acting out complex rituals (slow fight scene, marriages etc) - pretend play peaks at 6 years old. By now, it involves highly coordinated fantasies, rapid transitions between multiple roles and unique transformations of objects and situations Peer society in school years - 1-12 years of age kids spend progressively more time with kid companions and fewer hours with adults - physical aggression toward peers decrease and generosity and helpfulness increase - kids preference for age mates has a special role in social development because these peers share interests and abilities ( Western societies, age segregation in classrooms, sports teams) - 3 or 4 age, kids equally likely to choose same-gender or other gender companions for play - up to age 7 kids willing to play with peer of opposite sex - elementary school kids choose to play with same sex - gender segregation is obvious in school as boys and girls play different games and use different equipment - kids segregate selves into gender specific groups because of their different interest and play styles o girls play more quit games, small groups, near school building, close to adult supervision. Prefer artistic endeavor, books or dolls. Like unstructured activities (talking and walking) they are intimate and exchange more info than boys o boys play high energy, run and chase games in large groups, more competitive, older boys prefer organized games controlled by rules o boys and girls more competitive in groups than in dyads but difference is more marked for boys - in mixed gender group boys become less boisterous and girls more so because kids adjust their behaviour to fit the style of play that is preferred by their other sex playmates Peers interactions in adolescence - in high school kids spend 30% of their time with peers - peers offer perspective of equals who share abilities goals and problems - peers have stronger influence on whether teens use alcohol, tobacco or illegal drugs than parents - peers influence is significant in adolescents lack parental support - adolescents whose parents are warm, supportive and authoritative are less susceptible to peer pressure than adolescents whose parents do not have these qualities - adolescents whose friends described their parents as authoritative were less likely to use drugs and run afoul of the law than adolescents whose friends described parents as authoritarian - gender segregation in peer activities breaks down when dating starts Peers as socializers - modeling behaviour o peers influence each other by acting as social models o kids learn how to behave by watching peers actions o older kids learn about social rules by watching their peers o peer pressure implies peers not only model behaviours but also try to convince other kids to engage in them o praise= positive reactions and punish them with criticism and negative reactions for behaviours they dislike o when adolescents are greeted with peers jeers for choice of clothes, taste in friends they are likely to adjust their dress code or change friends o peer pressure in this case includes modeling the antisocial beahviour, encouraging friends to do it too, reinforcing them by hanging out together when they engage in antisocial beahviour and criticizing or dropping peers - social comparison: people evaluate their own abilities, values and other qualities by comparing themselves with others ( usually peers) - peers influence each other through social comparison - help kids define who they are and determine how well they think they stack up against their peers - comparing selves with peers is adaptive - as a basis of self-definition the peer group is unequaled Peer Status: Acceptance or Rejection - sociometric technique: procedure for determining a kids status in their peer group. Each kid in group either nominates other s whom they like best and least or rate each kid in the group for desirability as a companion o these techniques measure peer acceptance and rejection by assessing how much kids like or dislike each other - popular children: those that receive largest number of most liked nominations and fewest least like ones - average children: receive some of both types of nomination but not as many most liked nomination as popular children - neglected children: get few most liked and few least like votes not necessarily disliked by their classmates they are isolated and friendless - controversial children: get large number of most liked nominations and large number of least like nominations - rejected children: get many least liked nomination and few most like nominations - nominations technique does not pose significant risks - nominations approach has advantage of being quick and easy to administer - limiting choices makes reseachers miss info about how kids feel toward most of their classmates - alternative approach is the roster and rating sociometric prodceure - kids given list of all classmates and asked to rate on 5 point scale and how much thye like to play with each of them etc - kids level of acceptance is determined from their average rating - rating scale measures of acceptance are also better for detecting changes in acceptance when interventions are carried out to help kids with peer relations problems - 3 method for assessing peer status is gathering information about kids perceived popularity Factors that affect peer acceptance - status as popular, rejected or neglected depends on their behaviour and cognitive and social skills and superficial factors like name and physical appearance - peer status related to beahviour - two types of popularity o majority of popular kids are friendly toward peers and liked by them and are assertive but not disruptive o small number of kids and adolescents who are perceived to be popular display a mix of positive and negative behaviours o popular aggressive kids are athletic, arrogant and aggressive and viewed as cool and attractive at the same time o aggression provides a route to power and influence - two types of rejected children o aggressive-rejected children have poor self control and show frequent aggression and beahviour problems o nonaggressive rejected children: are anxious, withdrawn and socially unskilled o social withdrawal correlates of peer rejection in middle childhood and adolescents - two types of children are neglected o socially reticent kids watch other from afar and remain unoccupied in social company and hover near but do not engage in interaction o unsociable or socially uninterested kids are not anxious of fearful but refrain from social interactions because they prefer to play alone Biological predisposition - kids that are rejected by peers are disruptive, aggressive and hyperactive and are temperamentally active outgoing, unfocused and their temperaments are characterized by high extraversion surgency and poor effortful control - kids that are rejected or neglected by peers because they are withdrawn are temperamentally unsociable, they are less likely to smile and gaze during interactions with mothers in early infancy and have low extraversion surgency in early childhood - kid that are popular because their interactions with peers are frequent and competent have temperaments that are neither inhibited nor impulsive - temperament interacts with experience to predict peer status - kids are more likely to be rejected by their peers if they are exposed to high levels of conflict between their parents and have temperament that is low in effortful control - more likely to be socially withdrawn if mothers are negative and they have a shy temperament - kids hormone levels ( lower levels of trait cortisol are associated with poor quality peer relationships) and heart rate ( better regulation of heart rate related to higher peer status) Social cognitive skills - kids accepted by peers if they have the social knowledge and skill to ask for information from peers, offer information and invite other kids to join them in an activity - these kids are comfortable in new social situation and want to interact with other kids, feel confident that they have something useful to contribute and act interest in learning what others in group are like - kids who have better understanding of other peoples mental states and more awareness of their emotions and motives are less likely to be anxious and withdrawn or aggressive and disruptive than kids who lack their knowledge - kids who lack social skills hover silently on outskirts of group and make aggressive or inappropriate remarks - new social situation is similar to solving a cognitive problems - cognitive steps in evaluating social situations (model) used by kids - research found socially Incompetent kids are less likely to notice and interpret the cues correctly, generated few competent responses and chose less appropriate responses - kids who understood what to do when they viewed videotape were better at the real task of gaining entry into the peer group - deficits in social understanding can lead to maladaptive beahviour, poor interactions, and reduced peer acceptance. - Peer rejection can lead to deficits in social information processing - Relations between information processing and peer interactions are reciprocal - Kids do not always respond reflectively and thoughtfully sometimes behaviour is impulsive or automatic. Make social decisions outside conscious awareness - As kids are exposed to social situations they develop a set of social habits that they employ when they encounter similar situations - This automaticity of social beahviour has its advantages. It permits quick response, save times and cognitive energy and makes social life efficient - This can also lead to problems. Their responses can become scripted and routinized that conscious reflection plays little par in their beahviour - Step by step social information processing approach may be better model for encounters in new or ambiguous situations than in familiar situations - Social info processing model may also be more suitable for explaining the reactions of kids who are by temperament more reflective, rational, and deliberative and less useful for impulsive kids Kids goals in social interactions - kids goals affect their strategies in social situations - kids who want to create or maintain social relationships are likely to use prosocial strategies and to be accepted by their peers, kids whose goals is to dominate other may choose coercive strategies and be rejected - popular kids (high status) kids offer positive goals and strategies ( eg. They would make friends with kids in yard and ask kids to play - rejected kids (low status) likely to describe hostile goals and strategies they would avoid the situation ( play by self) - socially withdrawn kids pursue low cost social goals and use indirect strategies to initiate social interactions ( eg. Say can you look at this instead of saying can I play with you) - 3 yr olds show same preference in choosing attractive faces over unattractive ones - adults also attribute positive qualities to individuals who are physically attractive and kids do too - blending in affects peer status ( kids who look or act odd are unlikely to be popular, kids with disruptive or hyperactive beahviour are likely to be rejected - peers reject socially withdrawn kids because they do not fit in ( their demeanor runs contrary to age specific norms and expectations for social interaction - atypical beahviour becomes more salient to the peer group as kids get older that explain why the association between social withdrawal and peer rejection increases with age - kids with gender typical names liked more than names given to the opposite sex - kids prefer peers that play in acceptable ways - kids that violate gender role patterns are not popular ( boys playing with dolls) - high school students that are nonconventional in their appearance and mannerism were less accepted by peers than those who conformed to social conventions Consequences of peer rejection - what determines how kids react to rejection o different reaction depending on characteristics o more likely to interpret ambiguous comments as rejection and respond with distress if they are sensitive to rejection and frequently receive negative feedback o less likely to interpret ambiguous comments as rejection if they have self confident and approach social situations in positive manner than drawing they wont measure up o rejection more hurtful if comes from peer the kid is close to or admires - short and long term consequences of rejection o loneliness is immediate problem o rejected kids report feeling lonely and they are likely to feel socially isolated and alienated than kids of any other peer status o nonaggressive rejected kids feel lonelier than aggressive rejected kids o kids whose peers reject them tend to have difficulties in school; they have poorer quality relationships - mutual antipathy: a relationship of mutual dislike between two people Can peer status change? - kids peer status is quite stable over time - popular kids sometimes lose their high status and neglected kids gain social acceptance but rejected kids are unlikely to change their social status - stability is the result of reputational bias: the tendency of children to interpret peers behaviour on the basis of past encounters and impressions - when kids asked to judge peers negative beahviour they are likely to excuse a kid whom they earlier liked giving that child the benefit of the doubt but they do not excuse a peer whom they didn’t like. Peers can help too - kids easier to gain acceptance when they interact with younger less threatening kids - negative effects of being isolated from other monkeys early in life could be reversed by sustained contact with younger monkies - interacting with both sexes helps, cross gender and same gender play introduce boys and girls to broader range of behavioural styles and activities - kids gain peer acceptance when thye make the transition to middle school because it offers them the opportunity to interact with a larger number and variety of peers When peers become friends - friendships kids form with peers. Two kinds of peer relations are somewhat independent - child can be rejected or neglected by their classmates but still have at least one friend, another kid can be widely accepted by peers but lack a close friend Age changes in friendship - 1-2 yrs. Kids form rudimentary friendship - you kids know who their friends are and seek interactions with these specific peers - 50-70% of early friendships last more than a year - preschool years: kids form friendship based on similarities of age and gender = become friends with peers who show behaviour tendencies similar to their own - this tendency associated with smilar others is called homophilly (love the same) - kids behave differently with friends and nonfriends - direct more social overtures to friends, cooperate more with them, show more positive beahviour toward them - their friendship are marked by support and exclusivity - older preschoolers participate in reciprocated frienships - more than one quarter of kids do not form friendship in preschool period - kids that form friendships have more advanced social cognitive abilities, perspective taking ability, understanding of other peoples social intentions, ability to read other peoples emotions and regulation of their own emotional states. - It lays groundwork for future friendships Changing friendship goals - 3-7 goal is coordinated play (all social processes organized to promote successful and fun interactions. - 8-12 yrs goal change to concern about being accepted by same gender peers - most salient social process is negative gossip: advesre or determental info shared about another child with peer - gossip often used as a way to establish norms for the group - adolescene, the focus of friendship shifts to self understanding - self exploration and self-disclousre: honest sharing of info of personal nature often with a focus on problem solving; a central means by which adolescents and others develop friendship) - start to understand the meaning of emotions in relationships, such as dating etc Developmental changes in friendship concerns Primary concerns Main processes Emotional and purposes of development communication Early childhood Max. excitement, Coordinate play, To learn to and play escalate and de- manage arousal escalate play during activity, resolve interaction conflict Middle childhood To included by To share negative To acquire rules peers, avoid gossip with for showing rejection, and others feelings present oneself to other in positive way Adolescence To explore know To disclose To integrate logic and define oneself to others and emotion and oneself and to solve understand the problems implications of emotions for relationships Developmental changes in expectations of friends - reward cost stage ( grade 2-3) : kids expect friends to offer help, share common activities, provide stimulating ideas, be able to join in organized play and be demographically similar to them - normative stage ( grades 4-5): kids expect friends to accept and admire them, loyalty and commitment to the friendship and express similar values and attitudes toward rules and sanctions - empathic stage (grade6-7): kids being to expect genuineness and the potential for intimacy in their friends, expect friends to understand them and be willing to engage in self-disclosure; they want friends to accept their help, share common interests and hold similar attitudes and values across a range of topics - beyond age 12 adolescents continue to expect genuiness, the potential for intimacy and common interest in their friends, but they also think that it is important for friends to provide emotional support - role of friendship in promoting self worth is less salient in non-western cultures where development of the self is not considered a major developmental task Interactions with friends - friends had more positive exchanges, communicated more clearly, established common ground more easily, exchanged information, disclosed more about themselves and were able to resolve conflicts more effectively than strangers - kids express more positive effect in their interactions with friends than with nonfriends - friends disagree more than non friends but less heated and resolve faster so they preserve the friendship - more self-disclosing than acquaintances and more knowledgeable about each other. They know strength, secrets wishes and weaknesses Friendship Patterns - 10-15 yr old girls closet same gender friendships were more fragile than those of boys - girls tendency to form close friendships in isolation from the larger group might jeopardize their relationships. Boys same gender friendships are not embedded in larger group of relationships ( which provides a safety net and access to third party mediators, allies and alternative partners) - in girls friendships, there is more co-rumination- conversation in which friends talk together about their personal problems and negative feelings - boys less intimate with each other, less likely to give out personal info, confront friend directly when problem - pro of friendship: support, intimacy, guidance, kids are less lonely and depressed. - Rejected-aggressive and withdrawn kids develop friendships in spite of their difficulties gaining or maintaing acceptance by wider peer group and friends can buffer these kids from loneliness and sadness - Long term outcomes are better - Withdrawn kids friendships likely to be with other jrected kids and characterized by conflict rather than intimacy these kids encourage deviant behaviour etc Romantic Relationships - adolescence is the time when romantic relationships first develop - by middle adolescence most youth have been involved in at least one romantic relationship - adolescent romances are significant for adolescent functioning - but report more conflicts, more mood swing and when the relationships break up experience more symptoms of depression than adolescents who do not have romantic relationships - depression comes with romantic relationship with negative qualities o promiscuous dating, negative romantic experiences o but shows higher self-worth, experience less social anxiety, feel more part of their peer group than adolescents without romantic partners - have long-term consequences too ( adolescents with positive, intimate romantic relationships formed more committed relationships in young adulthood than adolescents who lacked romantic relationships - adolescents that dated few partners steadily were better off in early adulthood relationships than adolescents who dates large number of diff partners casually - adolescents that have close relationships with parents have closer romantic relationships - can resolve conflicts with parents can do the same with partners - if parents are harsh they are likely to be aggressive with romantic partner - adolescents relationships with romantic partners are related to their relationships with friends - kids with higher quality friendships or representations of friendships develop closer romantic ties in adolescence - peer group plays major role in partner choice in early adolescence - peer group networks: group of peers who are familiar with and interact with one another at different times for common play or task oriented purposes - young adolescents date partners that their peer group network approves of or views as cool interactions in groups - kids and adolescents from hierarchal groups with common goals and rules - dominance hierarchies: an ordering of individuals in a group from most to least dominant ( a pecking order) o 1 and half to 3 yrs showed this o dominant kid was strong, cognitively mature, persistent and girls dominated boys o after 3, boys take on dominant roles o next few years dominance is based on kids ability to direct beahviour of others in group, lead them in play and physically coerce them o middle childhood and early adolescence, dominance becomes based on leadership skills, attractive appearance, academic performance, athleticism, and pubertal development o preschool kids dominance hierarchies are simpler and loosely differentiated than older children because they see their own positions in the pecking order as a bit higher than they really are ( when they mature they get more accurate @ judging their position) o group hierarchies needed to reduce levels of aggression among members ( this is rarely seen in group with well established hierarchy) next is to divide task of groups. Lower status members taking worker roles and director roles going to the more dominant members. Then the dominance hierarchies determine the allocation of resources Cliques, Crowds and Gangs - clique: peer group formed on basis of friendship - crowd: collection of people whom others have stereotyped on the basis of their perceived shared attitudes or activities ( such as popular or nerds) - gang: group of adolescents or adults who form an allegiance for common purpose - middle childhood kids form clique. The size ranges from 3-9 kids of the same gender and race. - 11 yrs most of their interactions with peers occurs in the context of their clique. - Membership in a clique enhances kids psychological wellbeing and ability to cope with stress - They decline in importance as a result of DE grouping or loosening clique ties - Crowds may or may not spend much time with each other - But crowd members say that the crowd provides support, foster friendships, and facilitates social interaction - Identifying with crowd in first yr of high school predicted better adjustment in third year of highschool - Gang maybe loose-knit group or a formal organization with a leader or ruling council, gang colors, gang name etc. - Formal gangs often involved in criminal activity - Being part of gang may restrict kids social contacts - Makes hard to change lifestyle or explore new identities because they are channeled into social ties with people who share their values and identities - They encourage stereotyping: adolescents are biased in their use of reputational or stereotypic information about members of other gangs especially in ambiguous situations Chapter 9: Schools and Media- Children in an Electronic Age - AAP says kids under 2 should not watch tv and older kids should not have tvs in their bedrooms - Can be positive influence on kids shows them examples of tolerance and kindness - negative consequences due to portrayal of aggression and violence - hours of involvement: 40% of infants under 3 months of age watched tv for an hour at least a day - under 2 yrs watched 2 hours daily - 2-9 yrs age avg amount of time kids watched t.v about 3 hrs, viewing time peaks in preadolescence ( 10-13) they watch 4 hrs a day. Teens (13-17) viewing time is about two and a half hours per day - how much t.v kids watch and how time they spend playing video games is related to their family characteristics - kids watch more TV if they are poor, A. American or single parent families - video game playing is unrelated to family income but boys play twice as more than girls - as they get older kids watch fewer kids programs and more general audience fare o this has more violence and 91% of prime time network programs had violence - 70% of Sat morning cartoons had violence - analysis of content in PG 13 films showed violence permeated nearly 90% of the films and nearly half of the violent actions were lethal - more than 85% of video games had violent content - kids see nearly 14 000 sexual images or msgs on TV in a year - most of these sexual depictions in TV programs games and music videos are devoid of any indication of the risks and responsibilities of sexual intimacy - kids need to tell the difference between real and fantasy - magic window thinking: young kids have the tendency to believe television images are as real as real life people and objects - as kids get older their cognitive skills increase their ability to distinguish fantasy from reality improves. Four yr olds understand that characters and objects seen on TB are not actually inside the tv set - kids develop cognitive skills to help them understand cause and effect relations in tv shows. The ability to connect an action with its consequence may protect kids from negative effects of watching tv violence - if a character in shows is punished for aggressive acts kids are less likely to imitate those acts - only 20% of violent acts on TV are punished. Because complex plots of tv shows spate characters aggressive action from the consequence of that action, young kids have difficulty linking the crime with punishment - the inability of young kids to link actions and outcomes in regular tv programming may contribute to heightened effect of tv aggression on younger viewers - helping kids understand what they see on tv is not real can reduce harmful effects of viewing tv violence Tv’s positive effects - educational TV programs have positive effect on cognitive and language development - Mr Rogers taught kids prosocial content and were able to apply that learning to other situations involving peers - Encourage prosocial beahviours like sharing and cooperating, increase prosocial actions in young viewers - Especially true in kids from middle and upper families whose parents watch shows with them to encourage altruistic beahviour - Prosocial tv = kids having higher levels of social interaction and altruism and lower levels of aggression and stereotyping - These effects endure thru adolescence - Playing games strengthen group identity. Adolescence media preferences serve as badge of identity that young people use to define themselves Negative effects of TV and video games - more time adults and kids spend “living” in world of tv they are more likely to report perceptions of social reality that reflect those seen on tv. - They overestimate the degree of danger and crime in the world and underestimate the trustworthiness and helpfulness of other people - Negative effect on kids social development - Tv and games displace other activities like sports, conversations and clubs - Background tv also interferes with kids interactions with their parents. Parent child social exchanges decline - Tv biases kids attitudes toward ethnic groups - Kids of all ethnic groups associate white characters as rich, smart and ethnic minority character as bad, poor and lazy or goofy - Tv and games lead to increased negative effects of aggression in their social development - They see violence as acceptable and effective way to solve interpersonal conflict - Desensitization: process of people showing diminished emotional reactions to a repeated emotional reaction to a repeated stimulus or event - They become desensitized to violence and show less emotional reaction when viewing televised aggression and less psychological reaction to real world aggression after playing a violent game - Kids who watch violence may become less emotionally aroused by violent scenes and more tolerant of real life violence - Sexuality and television: tv emphasizes casual sex with little reference to contraception, pregnancy prevention or STIs - Frequent viewers of sex laden prime time programming supported recreational sex and sexual stereotypes - This could be cause they already formed attitudes about sex and chose to watch shows that validated them rather than having attitudes created by TV - Sex stereotyped TV = sex stereotyped attitude - Kids that rely on tv for companionship are more accepting of tv messages and use them to define social norms and values - Tv viewing has stronger effect on adolescents that lack friends - Heavy tv viewing related to atlered perceptions of peers sexual beahviour - Teens who watched shows with heavy sexual content were likely to engage in sexual intercourse over next year than teens who do not - Heightened exposure to contraception advertisements was associated with increased awareness of safe sex practice How can parents and siblings modify TV negative effects? - behaviour problems in kids if watched tv frequently and when parents not activily involved in their lives - show highest level of externalizing problems ( acting out) and internalizing problems ( depression and anxiety) o 1) watch shows with kids ( co-viewing shows help kids cope with fear aroused when shows are scary) they are less upset when they watch with parents or older siblings o 2) parents to be active mediators and help kids understand and interpret the programs they are watching and help young kids make connections between actions and consequences. Explain events and clarify info tend to make kids imaginative, less aggressive and less hyperactive o 3) parents express their disapproval of what they see on tv. When parents share disapproving remarks kids tend to be less aggressive than parents that supported the and approved o 4) parents encourage kids to empathize with victims and take their perspective. Boys that watched without the empathic commentary were more aggressive o 5) restrict kids choice of shows and games. This is decreasing cause more of the tv and consoles move to kids rooms - tv ratings are confusing and inconsistent - 65% of programs were not labeled with violence and 80% of sexually explicit programs were not labeled with S Internet - way kids co-construct their own environments through chat rooms, Facebook, blogs etc - used to explore social issues like identity, self worth and sexuality - it exposes kids to invasion of privacy, explicitly pornography, etc - internet identity – exploring and expressing ones identity is strong motivator for using internet - explore different identities in role playing and social networking sites - lonely adolescents who used the internet to experiment with their identities became more socially competent - interest use associated with positive psychological + social outcomes - better outcomes for extraverts and those with more social support but worse outcome for introverts and those with less support - online relationships are less intense and supportive than face to face relationships - internet is venue for maintaining social ties and forming new weaker ties - people like people they meet online than in person because hey fell it is easier to express their true self those aspects that they felt were important but private - reduces the risks inherent in self disclosure - 10-17 yr olds, 25% unintentionally encountered sexual material - chat rooms allow to explore sexual issues, like birth controls, abortion or rapes - teens clearly use internet to explore their sexual feelings and share info with peers - kids that use chart room more at risk for unwanted sexual soliticiation - mental health: internet lead to mental help problems - internet is place that allows kids to be aggressive because they cannot express negative opinions freer in real world - flaming wars are when they throw insults and threats and harassment - 1/3 experience at least one symptom of stress following incident - cell phones used to foster social connections with peers across time and space - cells are security objects in parent-teen relationships important because they provided the possibility of contact and communications all times Chapter 12: Aggression- insult and injury - aggression refers to beahviour that is intended to harm another person thru pain or injury - an act is aggressive if the aggressor intends it to harm the victim, the victim perceives it to be harmful and considered aggressive according to the norms of the community Types of aggression - aggression is a multifaceted set of behaviours varying in form, function and adaptiveness - 1) function of aggression can be: o proactive aggression: a desire to achieve a specific goal. Eg push kid off swing in order to use it yourself. Also known as the instrumental aggression because it is instrumental in achieving a goal ( often premediated and calculating. o Reactive aggression: occurs in response to a threat, attach or frustration. Eg. Kid hits another kid because they insult them. (aggression motivated by anger or hostility) also known as the hostile aggression - 2) forms of aggression: o physical aggression: inflicting physical damage or discomfort on another person by hitting, shoving or biting etc. o verbal aggression: use words to inflict pain o social aggression: hurtful non verbal gestures like rolling eyes or stick out tongue o relationship aggression: excluding other from a social group, hurtfully manipulating or sabotaging their social relationships or damaging their social position o these aggressions can be expressed directly or indirectly o direct aggression: physical or verbal attack is made directly on person o indirect aggression: causing pain by destroying persons property, getting another person to carry out the attack, create rumours or lies, where the perpetrators identity is not known - early childhood- aggressive interchanges can teach kids how to settle conflicts and disputes and promote their social cognitive growth - middle childhood- aggression can be used as a way to attract peers and impress them with aggressors toughness - adolescent- used to demonstrate power and maintain membership in gang or rise in status hierarchy of gang Direct Indirect Physical Punching, hitting, Destroying person shoving etc property, getting someone else to harm them Verbal Insulting, name Gossiping, getting calling, teasing others to gossip abut them too Relational Excluding, Spreading rumours threatening to stop or lies, exposing liking a person secrets about person, ignoring or betraying a person - patterns of aggression related to age, gender and stability over time Developmental changes in aggression - aggression in infants ( begins at the end of the first year) involves proactive/instrumental aggression. Earliest disputes are physical and direct (hitting, grabbing) - over next year increase to be more physically aggressive (87% of peer encounters at 21 months marked by physical conflict) - preschool period continues with proactive aggression and becomes more frequent than reactive or hostile aggression. - Verbal aggression beings and becomes more frequent ( such as outbursts, tantrums) this peaks at 2-3 yrs. And there is a decrease in physical aggression in preschool years. - Only 70% of 2-3 yr olds pushed or kicked later only 20% by they were 4-5 yrs old - Kids increased abilities to regulate and control their actins and to delay gratification linked to decreases in aggression - Distraction of self from object they want helps kids reduce their impulse to take toys or punch kids - Kids that are able to shift attention and ignore frustrating stimuli have better anger control and show less aggression - Only 14% of kids showed physical aggression when they were in 1 grade and 12% in the 3 grade rd - This age period kids attain most of their goals without using aggressive tactics - Their prefrontal cortex increases their executive functioning capacity ( aggression changes from proactive to predominantly reactive - Kids settle interpersonal scores that come from perceived threat and personal insults - Realize peers act purposively to hurt them and feel bad and become likely to retaliate - Direct verbal insults and name calling and indirect verbal aggression by gossiping, talking behind peoples back is common in this period - Relational aggression becomes more frequent as kids threaten not to play with other kids or spread rumors - More sophisticated forms of relational aggression thru forming cliques etc - Serious violent offence increases from 0 in preteen years to 5% at age 16 - A.American youth make up 15% of adolescent population but 26% of juvi arrests and 44% of detainees - Limited economic opportunities, dangerous neighbourhoods and colour-biased legal system contribute to ethnic disparities Development of aggressive behaviour - Infancy (0-2) : kids express anger + frustration, pushing and shoving and difference in irritability predict later aggression - Preschool (2-6): proactive aggression, expression of verbal aggression increases. Relational aggression (exclusion on playgrounds and ignoring begin to appear) - Elementary (6-10): reactive aggression occurs. Proactive aggression decreases. Boys uses both physical and relational aggression. Girls use relational aggression (gossip, rumors) physical aggression declines. - Adolescence: aggressive kids select aggressive peers. Relational aggression continues (excluding from cliques, alliance building) violent aggression increases among some youth. Rates of violent beahviour much higher in boys than girls. Gender Differences in aggression - gender is another important difference in aggression - few difference in infancy but when toddlers, boys more likely to instigate and involved in direct physical aggressive incidents and verbal attacks - forms of aggression differ for boys and girls - childhood thru adolescence boys are physically aggressive than girls - there is a decreasing trend in physical aggression in girls but not for boys - men that were aggressive boys likely to commit violent offences too whereas aggrieve girls more likely to commit non-violent acts (Drug use) - boys twice as likely as girls to violate rights of others and break age appropriate norms and rules and retaliate more too - girls more likely than boys to disapprove of aggression and to anticipate parental disapproval for acting aggressively - girls use verbal objections and negotiation to resolve problems - preschool time girls use concrete unsophisticated forms of relational aggression ( exclusion) or ignoring, more than direct verbal or physical aggression - elementary school years girls increase use of relational aggression by damaging interpersonal relationships thru gossips - middle school girls prefer to harm others indirectly thru social ostracism than direct confrontation - boys use relational aggression like girls too - girls more oriented toward social relationships and value social ties more than boys do - reducing other girls social status may be way for girls to gain the advantage in attracting boys ( imp goal in evolutionary theory) - relational aggression is more socially acceptable way for girls to be mean - problem with relational aggression is that girls and boy who in it are likely to be rejected by peers than kids who do not (same with physical aggression) Stability of Individual Differences in Aggression - aggression is stable over time for both girls and boys - 18% of kids remained consistently high in aggressiveness between toddlerhood and 3 grade rd - early starters: kids who start to behave aggressively early in development and remain aggressive through childhood and adolescence ( are more at risk for negative outcomes) - kids who show high levels of aggression in early years and consistently high levels of physical aggression throughout childhood were likely to show violent and non violent delinquency in adolescence - late starters: kids who begin to act aggressively only in adolescence engaged in delinquent behaviour for a limited time during teen years but not in adulthood - late starters avoided social rejection and school failure that occurred to early starters - gender differences are evident in early starters Biological Origins of aggressive behaviour - 18 months old physical aggression were more similar in identical twins than non-identical twins – genetic predisposition is involved - antisocial beahviour of early starters is more heritable than that of the late starters - infants temperament = aggression due to irritability, irregularity, and difficultness st - infants with these temperament traits in 1 yr of life were more hostile when they were 3 yr olds - 2/3’s of kids rated as noncompliant, overactive and ill tempered at age 3 had externalizing behaviour problems like physical aggression when they were 9 yrs old - impulsivity predicted aggressiveness - lacked self control more likely to become aggressive at an early age and to remain so - another temperament linked to aggression is fearfulness - fearful toddlers were more likely to persist in aggressiveness thru age 8 compared with less fearful toddlers - aggressiveness is more likely if kid have difficult, ill tempered impulsive or fearful temperaments Influence of peers - 2 things happen hen early starter aggressive kids enter school ( their peers reject them and they experience academic failure. - Both disappointments lead kids to behave more aggressively - Aggressiveness leads to more rejection in vicious cycle of rejection and aggression that goes into childhood - Adolescence kids learn aggressive beahviour patterns from peers by hanging with pals who are delinquents - Peer group supports these activities and kids become more delinquent - Aggressive youth seek each other out and amplify e
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