Textbook Notes (368,502)
Canada (161,931)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC21H3 (41)
Chapter 1


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David Haley

CHAPTER ONE Introduction Theories of Social DevelopmentThe study of social developmentdescription of childrens social behavior and how it changes as they get older description of their ideas about selves and others their relationships w peers and adults their emotional expressions and displays and their ability to function in social groupsit traces continuities and discontinuities in social behavr relationships ideasProcess that leads to changes in behavr and differences among childrenIncludes how other aspects of development Some scholars have descriptive concerns wanting to unravel mysteriesOthers have more practical concerns gather info to help people BLUE BOXnewborns can recognize their own mothers by smell2yr olds experience jealousyaggressive behavior in 8yr old can predict criminal behavr at 30infants in orphanages have lower levels o the love hormonechild abuse can lead to changes in childrens brain functioningadolescent girls who have grown wo father have 1in3 chance of becoming teen motherSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT A BRIEF HISTORYin medieval period children viewed as miniature adultsmany died in infancy or early childhood and if survived worked in minesfields1800s child labour lawsscientific study of child development began with Darwin work on developt of emotionsafter him Stanley Hall used questionnairs to document childrens feelingsattitudesafter B Watson conditioninglearningprocesses thru which social behavr acquired studied how infants acquire fear through conditioning shows emotional resp learnable and social behavr can be studied scientificallyFreud biological view s develt product of how adults handled childrens basic drives ex suckingArnold Gesell social skills unfold over course of infancy and childhood like motor skillsCRITICAL QUESTIONS ABOUT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 1 How do biological and environmental influences affect social developmentnature heredity and maturation biology destined and devel based on genetic factors which guide natural maturation a biologically determined process of growth that unfolds over time unfolding of complex social skills and abilities Gesell advocate of this view nurture learning and experienceWatsonby organizing environment can determine outcome of infantboth affect social developt but how do they interact is challenge to find outon study showed that childrens aggressiveness is function of both their testosterone level biology and exposure to aggressive interactions environmentanother study showed childrens socialibility with peers rooted in both early temperamental characteristics bio and early experiences with family env Blue Boxstory of Genie 13 yr old lived in isolation since infancycldnt stand erect walked with bunny walk incontinent unsocialized malnourishedwith therapy she learned to smile and new words and short phrases and sociable with familiar adults sign language nonverbal communication skills etcbut never master grammar or manage angry outburst and cant function independtly shows that theres sensitivecritical periods in life and development irreparably impaired if children lack sensory and social stimulation from their environments during these periodsthe case stimulated research on role of social stimulation for brain functioning and develpt of communicative and social skills 2What Role Do children play in their own Developmentearly scholars though children passive and shaped by external forcescontemporary scholars know children are active agents who shape control and direct own developtthey say children are curious seekers of info and try to explore worldthey modify actions of othersduring developt childrens interchanges with these other people best described as transactional ongoing interchanges between social partners such as parent and child across time that result in modifications of social behavr of each children behavr constantly undergoing change as result of mutual influence process3 What is Appropriate Unit for Studying Social Developmentmany typically focused on child as unit of analysisrecently psychs recognize other unitsrecognition that children have reciprocal interactions with others focusshifted to social dyads pair of social partners sch as friends parent and child or marital partnersresearchers now study social interactons and exchanges bw pairs of children bw children and parents and study relationships bw these pplattention also given to larger units including social triadssuch as motherfatherchild or trio of friendsalso study social grps children form of join outside family These grps have own rules and regulartions and provide context for childrens s developt4 Is Development Continous or Discontinoussome say continuous each change building on earlier experiences in orderly way Development is smooth and gradual no abrupt shiftsothers say discontinuous series of discrete steps and see organization of behavior as different at each stage Concerns of each phase and skills learned in it are different from others Piaget and Freud developed such stage theories saying as children get older move through diff stages and at each new one they learn new strategies for understanding and acquiring knowledge and for managing interpersonal relationships and these new strategies displace earlier ways of dealing with world Scientists of this view say noticeable changes in behave r part of ongoing series of smaller shiftsrecently psych say our judgement of either cont vs disc depends on power of lens we use when we look at changes across ages If look from distances theres distinct develop stages in behavr and relat but if look closely such changes dont happen suddenly Theres variability in s behavr even at same point in time ex of toddler playing with somones toy one day but next grabbing ittoday most see devel as cont but intersepted with transitional periods in which changes are abrupt These changes may be result of physical changes walking onset of puberty changes way think of selves or cultural changes entry to high school 5 Is Social Behaviour The Result of The Situation or the Childis childrens behavr same in different situationsome psychologists say person factors and others say situation factors but some say both contribute children seek out situations in which they can display personalities aggressive kid more likely to join gang but in settings that dont promote aggressive behavior same children can be friendlybiological foundationsgenetic predispositions lead to nichepick situations that are compatible with genetic makeup and childrens selection of these experiences may strengthen their predispositions such as tendency to behave agrressively as they get older6 Is Social Development Universal Across Cultureshow much different experiences in different racial ethnic grps have on social behavrsome psych say that culturefree laws of develop apply to all children in all cultures For example children in every culture acquire basic foundations of social life such as learning to recognize others emotional expressions and to communicate their wishes and desires to others thru languageothers argue that cultural settings play major role in devel For example in some cultures older singlings care for children and in others professional caregivers care for them in grp settings Develop wld differ in these 2 settings
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