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Psychology (9,695)
PSYC21H3 (41)
Chapter 2


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David Haley

CHAPTER TWO RESEARCH METHODS TOOLS FOR DISCOVERY hypothesis formed on basis of theoryGETTING STARTED FORMULATING HYPOTHESES ASKING QUESTIONSgood study steps 1 Translate general idea to hypothesisquestionif goal is to test specific theoretical premises propose testable hypothesisif goal is descriptive challenge to find question to be answered by empirical datao 1 Before empirical data find out past work o 2 Operationalization defining a concept so its observable and measurable of ideas or constructs idea or concept especially complex one such as aggression or love by translating them to empirical assessable forms o 3 Make decisions about research designs methods samples and anaylsesRESEARCH METHODS ESTABLISHING PATTERNS AND CAUSESmost common research methods are correlational experimental and case studyThe Correlational Methodlooking for statistical associations bw 2 variables to see whether theyre relatedJeromy and Singer asked parents re TV viewing of children and observers rated how aggressive chidren were with classmates Ratings showed children more aggressive at preschool watched more action and adventure shows at home according to parents which contain violenveCorrelation doesnt mean causationCorrelation coefficient statistic provides numerical estimate of how closely 2 variables related o10 lowest possible neg correlation increase in 1 variale theres decrease in other o 10 highest possible pos correlation increase in 1 variable theres increase in other o 00 variables unrelated o 02 to 05 usual correlation coefficients found by researcherspurpose of this method cant always design exp to study our question ex ethical reasons longterm exposure etc used to simply describe patterns and paths of development as naturally occurLaboratory Experimentsprimary way to investigate causal connectionscan precisely control critical features of social stimuliexperimental groupexposed to proposed causal factorcontrol group dont receiveexposed to itLiebert and Baron assigned boys and girls from 59yrs to each group o Experimental group saw 3 min crime show containing chase fistfights shootings knifingo Control group watched highly active but nonviolent tv clip o Watching violent clip or not was independent variable o In second phase of study told children theyre to play game with another child in adjoining room Children sat before panel that had labels hurt and help and told button connected to panel other child was looking at Told other child playing game required turning handle and if children wanted to make it easier for other child to turn handle could press help but to hinder child press hurt and would make handle hurning hoto Amount of aggressive behavr children displayed as how often hit hurt buttondependent variable o Results children whod seen violent TV hig hurt than other kids who watched fast past clip o Cannot generalize this study violent tv clip was manipulated to incl more acts of violence than normalindependent variablefactor that researchers deliberately manipulate in experiment dependent variable factor that researchers expect to change as function of change in independent variableecological validity degree to which research study accurately represents events or processes that occur in real world real life applicabilityLaboratory analogue experiment researchers try to duplicated in the laboratory features of events that occur naturally in everyday life in order to increase ecological validity of resultsFIELD EXPERIMENTS INTERVENTION AND NATURAL EXPERIMENTSin field experiements and interventions researchers deliberately introduce changes in normal environmentin natural experiments take advantage of natural occurring changesField ExperimentsField Experimentresearchers deliberately create change in real world setting then measure outcome of manipulation1 field experiment researchers studied effect of viewing tv violence on childrens aggression o preschoolers enrolled in summer program were participants o first 3wks were observed during play sessions to get baseline measure of aggressive behavr each child displayedo next 4 wks showed childrenrandomly assigned to one of 3 grps 30min tv program each day 1 Programs depcting violence 2Programs with caring and kindness and 3 Neutral shows o minimize oberserver bias observers tendency to be influenced by knowledge design or hypothesis by having researchers who assessed childrens behavr after tv be unaware of type of show watched o Results children high in aggressive behavr before experiment behaved more aggressively after repeated exposure to aggressive cartoons but not after exposure to other 2 shows o Children rated as less aggressive and watched neutral shows didnt increase aggression o Therefore aggressive shows affect only if aggressive to begin withfield experiments vs lab can be generalized to real life bcs control over independent variable random assignment of participants to grps and ecological validityInterventionsIntervention entire program vs few sessions provided to improve situation or relieve psychological illness or distress example 1 yr intervention to reduce effects of violent tv grds 13 vs control grp who didnt receive lessons which emphasized many ways tv distorts violenceo Result reduction in girls viewing of violent tv and identification with violent tv characters o Boys initially high viewers of violence reduced aggression o Children in control grp not less aggressive watch less tv or identify less with violent characters
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