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PSYC21H3 (41)
Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

CHAPTER 5 EMOTIONS THOUGHTS ABOUT FEELINGSChildren display emotions and communicate their feelings needs and desires and influence other peoples behavior WHAT ARE EMOTIONSEmotions are complex and involve a subjective reaction to something in the environment and are accompanied by a physiological arousal and are communicated to others through expression or actionUsually experienced as either pleasure or displeasureAs children prgogress through childhood and adolescence their expressions and awareness of emotions become more refined and complex o Due to the growing lexicon of emotion and ability to regulate emotional arousal manage emotional expressiveness and process the emotional expressions of othersPrimary emotions fear joy disgust surprise sadness and interest which emerges early in life and do not require introspection or selfreflectionSecondary or selfconscious emotions pride shame guilt jealousy embarrassment and empathy which emerge in the second year of life and depend on a sense of self and awareness of other peoples reactions WHY ARE EMOTIONS IMPORTANTEmotions function as 1 They are a way that children let other people know how they feelo They are a window into childrens likes and dislikes 2 Emotions are linked to childrens social success o They are important in problem solving 3 Emotions are linked to the childs mental and physical health o Problems in concentration and withdrawal from social groups may be in part due to health issues o Or due to heightened levels of arousal PERSPECTIVE ON EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENTBiological perspective o This perspective is useful for explaining the expression of basic emotions o Emotional expressions are innate and universal rooted in human evolution and based on anatomical structures Darwin o Research shows that facial expression of basic emotions such as happiness sadness surprise fear anger and disgust are the same in different cultures o Emotion is expressed by a distinct group of facial muscles which supports the claim that emotional expressions are based on anatomical structures o Genetic studies show that identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins o Therefore biology contributes to the expression of emotions and that childrens basic emotions are based on and constrained by biological features and processesLearning Perspective o This perspective is useful for explaining individual differences in emotional expression
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