Textbook Notes (363,420)
Canada (158,366)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC31H3 (100)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Demonstrations

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter Eleven - Page 1 of 8 Chapter 11 Demonstrations Memory I Memory is the capacity to retain info and utilize it for adaptive purposes One in three aged 75+ without dementia complain about memory deficits Memory complaints in outpatient settings may be the most frequent reason for neuropsych referrals Memory assessment is often the central issues in a neuropsych exam Patients and clinicians often lump many kinds of cognitive dysfunction under memory impairment In contrast, some people whose learning is impaired claim a good memory because early recollections seem vivid and easy to retrieve Knowledge about presenting complaints, the nature of brain injury, or the neuropsych syndrome, and the different etiologies of memory disorders should guide the selection of memory tests The examiners choice of memory tests should depend upon clinical judgment Examining Memory Its useful to begin the exam of attention before proceeding with memory tests A comprehensive memory evaluation should include: o Orientation to time and place o Prose recall to examine learning and retention of meaningful info which resembles what one hears in convos o Rote learning ability which gives a learning curve and is tested with both free and recognition trials o Visuospatial memory followed by a recognition trial o Remote memory, such as fund of info o Personal autobiographical memory All tests designed to measure learning should include one or more trials following a delay period filled with other tasks to prevent rehearsal, and both free recall and recognition or cued recall should be examined following the delay A unilateral lesion may affect recall of verbal and nonverbal material differentially with left hemisphere lesions more likely to compromise verbal memory and right hemisphere lesions particularly disrupting visuospatial recall Thus, inclusion of both verbal and visuospatial tests is necessary When assessing memory, the examiner should also compare aspects of cognition that arent heavily dependent on memory with the memory performance o To create variety, to reduce stress, to use them as interference Three memory testing procedures must be part of every aspect of memory assessment if a full understanding of the patients strengths and weaknesses is to be gained o Immediate recall trials are insufficient tests of learning, retention, or the memory systems efficiency Some patients may process more slowly This late improvement is called rebound when it follows diminished performance on an early delay trial Chapter Eleven - Page 2 of 8 o Interference during the delay period will prevent continuous rehearsal o When the subjects recall is below normal limits, its not possible to know whether reduced retrieval is due to a learning impairment or a retrieval problem You should test learning by recognition Elderly people may have hearing/vision problems that affect proper registration of a stimulus Patients with frontal lobe or subcortical damage may lack the spontaneity or drive to reproduce what they remember Memory tests are influenced the most by practice effects A small practice gain is more likely to occur on visuospatial memory tests even when different forms are used Verbal Automatisms Material learned by rote in childhood and frequently used and recalled so unthinkingly, effortlessly, and accurately is known as automatism o Among the least perishable of the learned verbal habits o Loss of deterioration in nonaphasic patients is indicative of attentional disturbances or fluctuations of consciousness in acute condition o In nonacute conditions, its usually severe, diffuse, cerebral damage (e.g. dementia) California Verbal Learning Test Assesses the use of semantic associations as a strategy for learning words. Each of the 16 words in each CVLT list belongs to one of four categories of shopping list items: for example, List A Mondays list contains four names of fruits, of herbs and spices, of articles of clothing, and of tools List B Tuesdays interference list also contains names of fruits and of herbs and spices plus four kinds of fish and four kitchen utensils. The CVLT II categories no more shopping lists for list A are vegetables, animals, ways of traveling, and furniture, with vegetables and animals in List B along with musical instruments and parts of buildings. o The CVLT II includes an alternate form and a short form (CVLT IISF). The words are read at a rate slightly slower than 1/sec Recall the words in any order assesses the spontaneous use of semantic associations CVLT is a measure of the interaction between verbal memory and conceptual ability, so scores cant be evaluated as exemplars of the patients learning ability because of the possible confounding effects of concept apprehension and conceptual organization Following 5 trials with list A, the interference list B is read to the subject Two short delay recalls of list A are obtained The first of the 2 recall trials is free recall Immediately following this, they have to recall items in each of the categories For subjects who used semantic clustering during the learning phase, cueing at delayed recall offers little additional benefitChapter Eleven - Page 3 of 8 Subjects who failed to make the semantic associations during the learning trials often benefit from this cueing The enhanced recall due to cueing should also carry over to the free recall with long delay 20 mins cued and free Category cueing following short delay free recall failed to facilitate long delay recall in college students The students receiving standard cueing instructions recalled the same number of words as those receiving no curing during short delay recall even though the cued students used more semantic clustering in their delayed free recall than did those who receiving no cueing The failure to find performance enhancement with cueing may be due to ceiling effect they recalled over 14 of the 16 words on trial 5 CVLT II Recognition trial all items of list A are included, but only 8 from list B, two from each of the two overlapping categories and two from each of the two new categories CVLT recognition trial four nonlist items each come from one of the four list A categories, eight items bear a phonetic resemblance to list A, and the remaining 8 are simply items one might find in a large store o The latter items usually dont elicit false positive erro
More Less

Related notes for PSYC31H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.