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Chapter 1

Psychological Assessment - Chapter 1 Book Notes

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Chapter 1: Introduction Standardized tests tend to disadvantage women and ethnic minorities Tests such as the LSAT and GRE are the most difficult modern psychological tests Basic Concepts Test: is a measurement device or technique used to quantify behaviour or aid in the understanding and prediction of a behaviour Example - A spelling test measures how well someone spells or the extent to which someone has learned to spell a certain list of words A test may not measure your full understanding of the material, because a test measures only a sample of behaviour and error is associated with a sampling process Test scores are not a perfect measure of a certain behaviour, but they do help in the prediction process Item: is a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly This response can be scored or evaluated The data they produce are explicit and subject to scientific inquiry Are specific questions that make up the test Psychological test: is a set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human begins that pertain to behaviour Some attempt to measure the extent to which someone might engage in a particular overt (observable behaviour) Covert behaviour takes place within an individual, thus cannot be observed Measures past or current behaviour or predicts future behaviour The meanings of scores can change dramatically, depending on how a well-defined sample of individuals www.notesolution.comscores on a test. To avoid this problem, scales are used Scales: relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution Individual tests: the test administrator gives the test to only one person at a tem Group test: can be administrated to more than one person at a time by a single examiner Tests can be categorized according to the type of behaviour they measure, such as ability tests There are different types of ability - achievement, aptitude, and intelligence Achievement: refers to previous learning Aptitude: refers to the potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill Intelligence: refers to a persons general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly, and profit from experience All three terms are encompassed by the term human ability Personality tests: are related to the overt and covert dispositions of the individual Tendency of a person to show a particular behaviour or response in a given situation Measures typical behaviour Structured personality tests: provide a statement (usually of the self report variety), and require the subject to choose between two or more alternative responses such as true or false Projective personality test: either stimulus (test material) or the required responses or both are ambiguous The individual is asked to provide a spontaneous response If an inkblot is presented, the persons interpretation of the inkblot will reflect his or her unique characteristics Psychological testing: refers to all the possible uses, applications, and underlying concepts of psychological and educational tests. The main purpose is to evaluate individual differences or variations www.notesolution.com
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