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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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Chapter 10: The Wechsler Intelligence Scale: WAIS-III, WISC-IV, and WPPSI-III THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALES Wechsler capitalized on the inappropriateness of the 1937 Binet scale as a measure of the intelligence of adults. Because the Binet scale items were selected for use with children, Wechsler concluded that these items lacked validity when answered by adults Wechsler also correctly noted that the Binet scales emphasis on speed, with timed tasks scattered throughout the scale, tended to unduly handicap older adults Mental age norms clearly did not apply to adults Wechsler criticized the then-existing Binet scale because it did not consider that intellectual performance could deteriorate as a person grew older Point and Performance Scale Concepts Two of the most critical differences between the Wechsler and the original Binet scales were (1) Wechslers use of the point scale concept rather than an age scale and (2) Wechslers inclusion of a performance scale The Point Scale Concept Recall that from 1908 to 1972, the Binet scale grouped items by age level. Each age level included a group of tasks that could be passed by two thirds to three fourths of the individual at that age level In an age scale format, the arrangement of items has nothing to do with their content. Various types of content are scattered throughout the scale On the earlier Binet scale, subjects did not receive a specific amount of points or credit for each task completed. For example, if a Binet scale subject is required to pass three out of four tasks in order to receive credit for a particular test, then passing only two tasks would produce no credit at all for that test In a point scale, credits or points are assigned to each item. An individual receives a specific amount of credit for each item passed The point scale offers an inherent advantage. This scale makes it easy to group items of a particular content together, which is exactly what Wechsler did By arranging items according to content and assigning a specific number of points to each item, Wechsler constructed an intelligence test that yielded not only a total overall score but also score for each content area The point scale concept allowed Wechsler to devise a test that permitted an analysis of the individuals ability in a variety of content areas The Performance Scale Concept The early Binet scale had been persistently and consistently criticized for its emphasis on language and verbal skills To deal with this problem, Wechsler included an entire scale that provided a measure of nonverbal intelligence: a performance scale In addition to measuring intelligence in adults and yielding separate score, Wechslers approach offered a third major advantage over the early Binet scales The performance scale consisted of tasks that required a subject to do something rather than merely answer questions although the early Binet scales contained some performance tasks, these tended to be concentrated at the younger age levels. The results of subjects response to a performance task on the Binet scale were extremely difficult to separate from the results for verbal tasks One could not determine the precise extent to which a subjects response to a performance task increased or decreased the total score The Wechsler scale, however, included two separate scales. The verbal scale provided a measure of verbal intelligence, the performance scale a measure of nonverbal intelligence www.notesolution.com
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